Himalayan Journal vol.16
The Himalayan Journal
Vol.16

Publication year:
1951

Editor:
H. W. Tobin
Index
  1. EDITORIAL
  2. ANNAPURNA
    (MAURICE HERZOG)
  3. SWISS HIMALAYAN EXPEDITION, 1949
    (RENE DITTERT)
  4. SCOTTISH KUMAON EXPEDITION
    (W. H. MURRAY)
  5. NORWEGIAN EXPEDITION TO TIRICH MIR, 1950
    (H. R. A. STREATHER)
  6. SIKKIM KHANGKYONG PLATEAU AND KANGCHENJAU
    (T. H. BRAHAM)
  7. SIR JOSEPH HOOKER, K.G.S.I., M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S,
    (F. F. FERGUSSON)
  8. EXPEDITIONS
  9. HIMALAYAN PORTERS
  10. NOTES
  11. REVIEWS
  12. IN MEMORIAM
  13. CLUB PROCEEDINGS

HIMALAYAN PORTERS

List compiled September 1950

Of the 175 porters mentioned 51 have died and 24 were killed in the mountains. Twenty-nine, still fit for mountaineering, are at present available in Darjeeling.

This list does not include the names of the young porters now working on small treks in Sikkim, who have no high altitude experience. Nor does it include the names of the seven porters killed on the slopes of the North col on Everest in 1922. Their names were not given in the official report.

[As we go to press information has come in of the names of the seven porters killed on Eve rest in 1922. They are inscribed, alongside those of Kellas, Mallory, and Irvine, on the Memorial Cairn at the Base Camp. Their full names -111(1 numbers have not yet been ascertained.-Ed.]

Abbreviations

Annap .... . . . Annapurna

Ev ........ Everest

Garh ....... Garhwal

Kanch ....... Kangchenjunga

KK ........ Karakoram

N.P............................................ Nanga Parbat

Rakap ....... Rakaposhi

Sik ........ Sikkim
Himalayan

CI. No.
Name Date of

birth
Expeditions Remarks
61* Aila Sherpa 1913 36: Ev. 37: Shaksgam. 38: Gangotri (Austr). 39: Sik (Grob). 49: Pyramid Pk. 50: Annapurna. One of the best Sherpas available at present. Tiger's Badge.
10* Ajeeba 1911 33: Ev. 35: Kabru. 36: Ev. 37: Sik (Grob). 38: Rakap. 39: Sik (Grob). 47: Gangotri. 49: Pyramid Pk. 50: Annap. 50/51: KK (Marsh). Very experienced. One of the best Sherpas now available.
43 Ang Babu I9I5 30: Kanch. 33: Ev. 35: Ev. 36: Ev. 39: La- houl (Krenek). Good only for minor expeditions.
40 Ang Dawa I (Thamay) .. 36: Ev. 37: Sik (Grob). 38: Ev. 39: Garh (Roch). 47: Garh (Roch). Now at Sola Khumbu.
41 Ang Dawa II 1915 36: Ev. 47: Rakap. 50: Garh (Dittert). Still going strong. Reliable sirdar and excellent cook.
42 Ang Dawa III (Luckla) .. 36: Ev. 38: Gangotri. Now at Sola Khumbu.
I52 Ang Dawa IV (Chota) 1928 49: Pyramid Pk. 50: Annap. 50: Garh (Dittert). Promising young porter.
..

D.116
Ang Dawa V Ang Karma 1929 1913 49: Pyramid Pk. 36: Ev. 38: Ev. 42: Lama Amden. 43: Bandarpunch. Did quite well.

Died during the war.
I Ang Nima 1907 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 34: Sik (Gourley). 36: Simvu. 36: Fluted Pk. 39: Lahoul. 49: Pyramid Pk. Willing, but slow to grasp things.
.. Ang Nurbu .. 47: Garh (Roch). Now at Sola Khumbu.
D. 24 Ang Pasang 1912 33: Ev. 34: Sik (Gourley) . 36: Tibet (Mar- tvn). Died in 1943.
D .. Ang Pemba 38: Ka. Died in 1942.
103 Ang Phuri 36: KK (French). ?
D. 44 Ang Phurwa 36: Ev. Died in 1937.
89 Ang Yemba 11 36: KK (French). Too old now.
I55 Ang Temba III 1932 49: Pyramid Pk. 50/51: KK (Marsh). Did well in 1949.
D .. Ang Tenzing I 1908 24: Ev. 34: N.P. 35: Garh f Auden). ............. - Died in 1936.
3 Ang Tenzing II 191-2 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. 33: Ev. 35: Ev. 36: Ev. 37: Shaksgam. 38: Gangotri (Aust) 46: Nun Kun. Died in 1949 whilst on tour with Wood in Lho- nak. Malaria. Tiger's Badge.
.. Ang Tenzing III 1922 47: Rakap. Now at Sola Khumbu.
13 Ang Thari 1915 35: Kabru. 36: Ev. Now at Sola Khumbu.
19* Ang Tharkay I909 , 31: Kanch. 33: Ev. 34: Nanda Devi. 36: Ev. 36: Garh(Osmaston). 37: Shaksgam. 38: Ev. 39: KK (Shipton). 45: Pauhunri. 49: Kanchenjau. 50: Annapurna. Very likely the best and most experienced Sher pa, now working. Highly praised Tiger's badge.
36 Ang Tsering I 1910 24: Ev. 30: Kanch. 31: Kamet. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 36: Ev. 39: Lahoul (Krenek). German order of the Red Cross (Nanga Parbat, 34). Works as sirdar on treks below snow-line.
15 Ang Tsering II 1909 33: Ev. 35: Ev. 35: Kabru. 36: Ev. 37: N.P. Killed in avalanche on Nanga Parbat 1937.
51 Ang Tsering III ('Pansy') 1907 36: Ev. 37: Garh (Gardiner) . 38: Sik (Grob). 39: Sik (Grob). 49: Pyramid Pk. 50: Annap. 50: Nepal (Madgavkar). Rather old now but still going strong. Tiger's Badge.
101 Ang Tsering IV 1915 36: KK (French). 47: Garh (Roch). 49: Pyramid Pk. 50: Nepal (Madgavkar). In 1949 employed as Post Runner only.
16 Champa Lama 1913 34: Tibet (Bell). 35: Sik (Twynam). Left Darjeeling 1937, returned 1949. Excellent cook and sirdar, inexperienced climber.
+

.. +
Chettan .. 22: Ev. 24: Ev. 26: Kumaon (Rutt- ledge). 27: Garh (Ruttledge). 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. In his time one 01 the most famous of the Tigers. Killed in avalanche on Kanch.
104 Chong Karma 36: KK (French). 37: N.P. Killed in avalanche on Nanga Parbat.
100 Chung Tsering 36: KK (French). ?
76 Chung Chung 1900 33: Ev. 36: Ev. Now cook in Alubari monastery.
92

+

..+
Chumbi Dakschi ..

..
30: KK (French)

33: Ev. 34: N.P.
Died on Nanga Parbat.
D. 33 Da Namgyal 1895 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. Died 1938.
157 Da Namgyal II 1925 49: Nepal (Tilman). 50: Nepal (Til- man'). New man, no reports received so far.
.. Da Nurbu 1925 50: Nepal (Madgavkar). New man.
D.105 Da Tenzing .. 36: KK (French). Died 1939 .
49* Dawa Thondup 1907 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 35: K.36. 35: Garh (Auden). 36: Ev. 37: Sik (Gook). 38: Masherbrum. 39: K.2. 47: Gangotri (Roch). 50: Annap. 50: Garh (Dittert). 45: Ghomo Yummo. 43: Bandarpunch. Though rather old is still really excellent. He reached the summit of Abi Gamin in 1950. Order of Ger- man Red Cross. Tiger's Badge.
D. 53 Dawa

Tsering Bhutia
1916 36:KK (French). Died 1946. Him. Journal, 1940, p. j141, states No. 53 received Tiger's Badge, an error: Dawa Tsering Sherpa received it.
D. .. Dawa Tsering Sherpa .. 33: Ev. 36: Ev. 38: Ev. Died in 1939.

Tiger's Badge.
113 Dhunbir Lepcha .. 36:K.K (French). ?
122 Dongri .. 36: Ev. ?
55 Dorji Mistri .. 36: Ev. Works now as Mistri at Kalimpong.
D. 14

D. 91
Dupha

Genden Umdu
1909 21: Ev. 22: Ev. 36: KK (French). 39: Sik (Grob). Died 1935

Died in 1943.
+

+
Geyley .. 22: Ev. 34: N.P. Died on Nanga Parbat 1934.
84 Girmey Chakki Bhutia .. 36: Ev. Too old now.
59 Gna Temba .. 36: Ev. Gone to Sola Khumbu.
118 Gombu .. 36: Ev. 39: Garh (Roch). Killed in avalanche on Chau- kamba 1939.
56 Gyalgen I Khumiung .. 36: Ev. Gone to Sola Khumbu.
57* Gyalgen II Mikchen 1915 36: Ev. 38: Ev. 39: KK (Shipton). 46: Nun Kun. 49: Pyramid Pk. 50: Nepal (Tilman). Excellent sirdar. Highly praised.
58+ Gyalgen III Monjo .. 36: Ev. 37: N.P. Killed in avalanche on Nanga Parbat 1937.
115 Gyalgen IV .. ? Now doing business at Darjeel- ing.
125 Gyalgen V (Bhutia) .. 36: Ev. Working m Sikkim.
145 Gyalgen VI Gyalgen VII 1918

1931
38: Ev.

49: Pyramid Pk. 49: Panch Chuli. 50: Garh (Ch-Thomas).
Gone to Yarkand. Very young. Promising.
.. Gyalgen VIII 1930 50: Nepal (Madgav- kar). New man.
D. 142 Hawang Sherpa 1909 37: Sik (Hunt). Died 1941.
D. 111 Hishey Bhutia .. 37: KK (Hunt). Died 1941.
159 Ila Namgyal 1923 45: Sik (Tilley). Not much experience.
18 Ila Kitar 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. 31: Kanch. 33: Ev. 35: Ev. 36: Ev. Now at Sola Khumbu.
D. 85 Ila Tenzing 1916 36: Ev. Died, date uncertain.
D. 97 Injung Bhutia 1911 36: KK (French). Died, date uncertain.
D. 22 Jayung Nakpa 1904 29: Kanch. 36: Ev. Died 1941.
23+ Jigmi .. 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. 31: Kanch. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 35: Ev. 35: Kabru. 36: Ev. 37: N.P. Killed in avalanche on Nanga Parbat 1937.
52 Jigmay Tsering 1911 34: N.P. 36: KK (French). Ten years as cook at Bellevue Hotel, now available again.
117+ Karmi .. 36: Ev. 37: N.P. Killed in avalanche on Nanga Parbat
156 Karsang 1928 49: Pyramid Pk. 50: Nepal. New man.
83 Kijaipa .. 36: Ev. ?
63 Kirken .. 36: Ev. Gone to Sola Khumbu.
35+ Kitar 1905 24: Ev. 31: Kamet. 32: Kumaon (Rutt- ledge). 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 35: Kabru. 36: Gurla M. (Tichy). 36: Nanda Devi. Died on Nanda Devi in 1936.
120 Kitar II 36: Ev. ?
D.g Kusang Namgay 33: Ev. 34: Nanda Devi. 36: Ev. 38: Ev. Died at Sola Kumbu 1950. Tiger's Badge.
20 Kusang Siter 1906 31: Kamet. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 35: Ev. Drowned on returning from Everest 1935.
126 Kusang Temba 36: Ev. Gone to Sola Khumbu.
34 Lhakpa Chedi 1903 24: Ev. 33: Ev. Now in Calcutta.
30 Lhakpa Tenzing 1915 33: Ev. 35: Kabru. 36: KK (French). 37: Gone to Yarkand. Tiger's Badge.
D. 46 Lewa 1902 Shaksgam. 38: Ev. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 31: Garnet. 35-37: bet (Kaulback). 38: Kaulback. Died in 1948.

Tiger’ s Badge.
64 Lobsang Sherpa 1903 29: Kanch. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. ?
_ D. 144 Lobsang 1909 38: Ev. Died 1945. Tiger's
D. 21 Sherpa II Lobsang Tenzing 1904 33: Ev. 34: N.P. Badge. Died 1935.
132 Manbahadur Sherpa 1901 36: Sik (Bauer). 37: N.P. 38: Tibet (Slicphc.ird). Works with

P.W.D., Gang- tok.
D.96 Mapchi Topgay 1906 36:K K (French). 37: Koluhoi. Died, date uncertain.
128

69
Mingma Mingma Gyalgen 1915 36: Ev.

36: Ev.
?

Now at Sola Khumbu.
112

D. 87
Mingma Kaprak Mingma Neithen 1903 36: KK (French).

36: KK (French).
?

Died, date un known.
D. 31

68
Mingma Thu Thu ('Alice')

Mingma Tsering
1900

..
22: Ev. 24: Ev. 31: Kanch. oik (Osmaston). 39: Kumaon. 47: Raka- poshi.

36: Ev. 37: N.P.
Disappeared on the

Return journey from Srinagar to Darjeeling.

Died in the avalanche on Nanga Parbat 1937.
D. 62 Namgyal 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 35: Died 1938.
D.5 Narsang ('Policy') 1891 Ev. 36: Ev. 22: Ev. 24: Ev. 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. Died 1942.
D. .. Nima 1914 31: Kanch. 32: Sik (Osmaston). 33: Ev. 36: Ev. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 39: Garh (Koch). Died, date un known.
D. Nima Dorje I 1903 24: Ev. 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. 31: Kamet. 32: Nanda Devi. 33: Ev. 33: Sik (Gourley). 34: N.P. 34: Sik (Auden). 35: Tibet (Kaulb). Died on the way back from Gyanste in 1938.
+ + Nima Dorje II 33: Ev. 34: N.P. Died on Nanga Parbat.
+ + Nima Nurbu 33: Ev. 34: N.P. Died on Nanga Parbat 1934.
65 Nima Sherpa 1909 31: Kamet, 33: Ev. 34: N.P. ?
D. .. Nima Sherpa II 1912 38: N.P. Died 1942.
+ .. + Nima Tashi 29: Kanch. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. Died on Nanga Parbat 1934.
149 Nima Tenzing 1921 49: Pyramid Pk. 50: Garh (Tichy). Reliable sirdar.
D. 67 Nima Thondup 1894 21: Ev. 22: Ev. 24: Ev. 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. 31: Kanch. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 35: Tibet (Kaulb). Died in 1949.
17 Nima Tsering I 1908 33: Ev. 35: Ev. 36: KK (French). 37: N.P. Killed in avalanche on Nanga Parbat 1937.
110 Nima Tsering II 36: KK (French). 37: N.P. Killed in avalanche on Nanga Parbat 1937
D.129 Nima Tsering III 1907 36: Nanda Devi. 37: Sik (Grob). 38: Masherbrum. Died in 1939.
70 Nukku 1910 36: Ev. 37: Shaksgam. 38: Ev. 39: Assam (Tilman). Died of malaria in Bhutan in 1939.
D. 27 Nullu 1894 24: Ev. 31: Kamet. 34: N.P. 36: KK

(French).
Died at Sola Khumbu in 1938.
D. 71 Nutbu Bhutia 36: Ev. 37: Garh (Smythe). 38: Ev. Died 1941.
124 Nurbu II 36: Ev. Now in Kurseong.
D. .. Nurbu Sonam 1912 33: Ev. 34: N.P. Died in 1935.
Nuri 1917 36 Ev.39:Garh (Roch). ?
Nuri Sikkimi 44: Trisul (Good- fellow). ?
81 Oocheri 36: Ev. Now at Sola Khumbu.
121 Ongyal 36 : Ev. ?
D.7 Pasang Anju 1910 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. 31: Kanch. 32: Sik (Osmaston). 33: Ev. 33: Sik (Gourley). 34: Sik (Auden). 35: Garh (Auden). Died in 1936.
D. 86 Pasang Ckikadi 1903 36: KK (French). 37: Kolahoi. 38: N.P. Died May 1950.
+ .. + Pasang 31: Kanch. Killed on Kanck. i93i.
D. 39 Pasang Bhutia 33: Ev. 34: Nanda Devi. 35: Ev. 36: Ev. 38: Ev. Died in 1948.
..

139*
PasangDawa Pasang Dawa Lama (or Pasang Sherpa) 1925

1911
50: Nepal (Tilman). 38: Masherbrum. 37: Ghomolhari. 39: K.2.37: Sik (Cook). 49: Pyramid Pk. 50: Garh (Snelsen). 44: Nanda Ghunti. New man.

Reached 24,450 feet on K.2. Able organizer and very good climber. Tiger's Badge.
D. 28* Pasang Dorji 1894 31: Kanch. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. Died 1947.
11 Pasang Gaken Pasang Kikuli 1908 1911 30: Kanch. 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. 31: Kanch. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 36: Nanda Devi. 38: K.2. 39: 'Too old now. Excellent reports throughout. Died on K.2. in 1939. Tiger's Badge.
+ ' + Pasang Kitar 39: K.2. Killed on K.2. 1939.
2 Pasang Lama 1892 24: Ev. 34: N. P. too old now.
29 Pasang Nurbu (Picture) 1907 29: Kanch. 31: Kanch. 34: N.P. 36: Ev. 37: N.P. Killed in avalanche on Nanga Parbat 1937.
79 Pasang Phuttar 1910 29: Kanch. 33: Ev. 35: Sik (Stoddart). 35: Kabru. 36: Nanda Devi. 38: Masherbrum. No longer fit. Lost 7 fingers on Masherbrum, now has heart trouble.
D. 127 Pasang Sherpa 36: Ev. 38: Gangotri (Austr). Died, date un- known.
D. 78 Pasang Tsering (Okaraya) 1906 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. Died in 1936.
98 Pasang Urgen 1908 3b: KK (French). 38: Gangotri (Austr). 47: Garh (Roch). Now working as rickshaw coolie.
54 Palden 1903 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 35: K.36. 36: Sik (Heim). Now working at Kurseong. Tiger's Badge.
D. 146 Pemba Bhutia 1910 38: N.P. Died, date unknown.
D. 147 Pemba Kitar (Sherpa) 1915 38: K.2. Died in 1946.
150 Pemba Nurbu 38: Gangotri (Austr). 38: Garh (White). 49: Nepal (Tilman). Quite satisfactory.
D. 90 Pemba Sherpa 26: KK (French). Died, date unknown.
72 Pemba Sundar 36: Ev. Gone to Sola Khumbu.
158 Penuri 1928 47: Garh (Roch). 49: Pyramid Pk. 49: Panch Chuli (Thomas). 50: Garh (Dittert). Strong, reliable, and slowly gaining experience.
45 Phurba Tashi 36: Ev. Business at Lhasa.
D. 66 Phurba Tenzing 33: Ev. 35: Ev. 36: Ev. q8: Ev. Died during the war.
131 Phur Temba 36: Ev. Gone to Sola Khumbu.
I55 Phu Tharkey 1922 45: Pauhunri. 47: Rakap. 49: Nepal (Tilman). 50: An- nap. Very satisfactory.
+ .. + Pintso Nurbu 33: Ev. 34: N.P. Killed on Nanga Parbat 1937.
I41 Pintso Sherpa 1913 38: K.2. 39: K.2. Killed on K..2 1939.
D. 32 Ringsing Bhutia 33: Ev. 35: Ev. 36: Ev. 36: Garh (Os- maston). 38: Ev. Died in 1947. Tiger's Badge.
119 Rinsing II 36: Ev. ?
D.74 Samden 36: Ev. Died in Simla 1948.
93 Samdup 36: KK (French). Gone to Tibet.
D. 77 San Dorji 35: Ev. Died, Sola Khumbu,1945.
D.37 Sanglu Sirdar 1885 20: Kanga La (Kellas). 21: Ev. 22: Ev. 24: Ev. 29: Kashmir (Noel). 31: Kanch. s6: KK (French"). Died in 1941.
80

D. 88
Santu

Sanu Pasang
1913 36: Ev.

36: KK (French).
?

Died, date unknown.
151* Sarki 1920 46: Nun Kun. 46: Ghomo Yummo (Braham). 50: An- nap. 50: Nepal (Madgavkar). Reached Camp V on Annapurna. Possibly the most promising of the younger Sher- pas.
82 Sona(m) 1915 36: Ev. Now Police Dept., Calcutta.
II D. 94 Sonam Bhutia 1909 36: KK (French). Died, date unknown.
143 Sonam Sherpa 39: K.2. Now too frail.
75 Sonam 35: Ev. 36: Ev. 36: Gone to Sola
Tenzing Garh (Osmaston). 37: Shaksgam. 38: Ev (Tilman"). Khumbu.
D. .. Sonam Topgay I 1903 34: N.P. Died in 1935.
102 Sonam Topgay II 36: KK (French). ?
106 Sonam Tsering 1917 36: KK (French). 46: Sasir (Roberts). Left Darjeeling.
107 D. 47 Tarke

Tashi Thondup
..

1897
36: KK (French). 22: Ev. 24: Ev. 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. 31: Kanch 33: Tibet (K. Ward). 34: N.P. 35: Tibet (K. Ward). ?

Died in 1944.
6 Tehley (Socogem) 1888 27: Gyantse (Gour- ley). 29: Kanch. 32: Chomo Yummo (Spence). 34: Sik. too old now.
48* Tenzing Bhutia 1917 36: Ev. 36: Garh (Os- maston). 38: Ev. 38: Garh (Osmaston). 39: Chitral (Mid- ar?). 46: Sik (Kir- sopp). 47: Ev (Den- man). 47: Gangotri (Roch). 48: Lhasa (Tucci). 49: Nepal (Tilman). 50: Ban- darpunch (Gibson). 50/51 :KK. (March). Technically prob- ably the best of all the Sherpas now working. Is qualified to lead in difficult terrain. Tiger's Badge.
108 Tenzing (Lhakpa) .. 3b: KK (Frcnch). ?
D. 12 Tewang .. 24: Ev. 29: Kanch. 33: Ev. 34: Ev (Wilson). 35 Ev. 36: Ev. Went mad, died 1942.
60 Thundu

Bhutia
.. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. Too old now.
I54 Tkundu

Sherpa
1915 45-50 Many Sikkim tours, Excellent cook.
95

..

..
Thupden

Tillye

Tsering
1918 36: KK (French). 39: Garh (Roch).

39: K.2.
?

?

?
D. 50 Tsering Tarke 1908 29: Kanch. 33: Ev. 35: Ev. 36: Ev. Died in 1936.
38 Tse Tendrup 1909 36: KK (French). 38: K.2. W K.2. Too old now.
109 Tsinge Temba .. 36: KK (French). ?
D.59 Tsong Dumdu .. 29: Kanch. 34: Tibet. Died in 1936.
D. 148 Tuthin Bhutia 19I2 38: N.P. Died in 1942.
123 Wangdi .. 36: Ev. ?
25 Wangdi Nurbu (Ongdi) .. 29: Kanch. 30: Kanch. 31: Kamet. 33: Ev. 34: N.P. 36: Ev. 37: Garh (Smythe). 38: Ev. 38: Garh (Austr). 39: Assam (Tilman). 47: Gangotri (Roch). No longer available.Broke ankle, Gangotri, 1947- Tiger's Badge.
NOTES ON SOME OF THE HIGH-ALTITUDE PORTERS NOW AVAILABLE

The following three have the highest reputation among the sirdars now available:

Angtharkay, aged 41. He gained a high reputation on the Everest Expeditions of 1936 and 1938. Since then he has lost nothing of his mountaineering ability but gained considerably in experience. On many minor expeditions in Sikkim he has acted as a 'guide', in the Swiss sense of the word, finding the route and leading to the top. His great experience enables him to smooth out difficulties with local coolies and make the utmost use of local resources. He is, according to many testimonies, a most pleasant and interesting companion. Angtharkay normally supplies porters and sirdars for the various expeditions.

Pasang Dawa Lama, or Pasang Dawa Sherpa, aged 39. He reached the summit of Chomolhari with Spencer Chapman in 1937. In 1939 he reached 27,450 feet on K.2, which, if the figures are correct, is the greatest altitude reached by any Sherpa. He has not taken part in any of the big expeditions lately: it is difficult therefore to judge of his present mountaineering ability, though he readied the summit of Chomo Yummo in 1950, together with J. P. Lucas. A word of caution: lie is not above trying to get as much money as he can from his employers.

Tenzing Bhutia, or Tenzing Khumjung, aged 33. He is the most accomplished of the three, and speaks English quite well. In the winter of 1949/50 he was employed as a ski-ing instructor with the Indian Army in Kashmir. He is a very good climber, well qualified to act as a 'guide'. His work on Bandarpunch in 1950 was highly praised. As he is the youngest of the three a great future is before him.

Of the other Sherpas Dawa Thondup, aged 43, should be especially mentioned. In spite of his age he is still first class. He reached the summit of Abi Gamin in 1950. He is very modest-possibly the reason why he has not acted as sirdar up till now.

Among the younger generation of porters Sarki deserves special mention. His work on Nun Kun was highly praised, and he reached Camp V on Annapurna carrying a heavy load. Several others are also gaining a good reputation. The gap caused by the war seems to be slowly filling up again. Much credit for the training of the younger men goes to the Swiss expeditions. It is to be hoped that future expeditions will always employ one or two of the younger porters (they are normally better at load-carrying) so that they may gain experience.

All the Sherpas and Bhutias of Darjeeling have suffered greatly in the overwhelming landslides of June 1950. Many houses were destroyed, and a great number of them are still living in temporary quarters, or, having found accommodation, are having to pay exorbitant rents.

RULES FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF SHERPA PORTERS

The following rules have no official authority, but they have been prepared in the light of conditions obtaining at present, and the rates given are based on those now prevailing; as such, they are intended to serve merely as a guide to members.

Rates. For small expeditions and expeditions working mainly below the snow-line: Sirdar, Rs. 5 per day; Porter, Rs. 3 per day. Half-rates for porters returning unladen during the course of small expeditions. For expeditions of longer duration: Sirdar, Rs. 150 to Rs. 175 per month; Porters, Rs. 100 to Rs. 120 per month.

Advances. Rs. 20 to Rs. 25 per month; e.g. for an expedition lasting three months, Rs. 60 to Rs. 75 is the usual advance, which should be paid at least a month beforehand. The amount will not be refunded if the expedition is cancelled within a fortnight of the start. The Hon. Local Secretary in Darjeeling would be prepared to assist leaders of expeditions, but he would require ample notice.

Food. For tours in Sikkim porters provide their own food along bungalow routes, but food must be provided for them off the main routes and above the snow-line. It is customary, also, to provide them with cigarettes.

Equipment. Must be provided by the employer, especially in the case of mountaineering parties. Some small expeditions have found it cheaper to pay porters a hire charge for supplying their own equipment, which is generally good and mainly acquired from large foreign expeditions. The usual hire charge in this case is Rs. 20 per month, payable to each fully-equipped man.

Fares. Third-class railway fares from and to Darjeeling should be paid, plus Rs. 2 per day for food.

It should be noted that members resident in India often complain that foreign expeditions tend to spoil porters by paying enhanced rates, e.g. Rs. 210 per month was paid in 1950 to a sirdar; or by giving them a large 'bakshish' at the end, although this should never be more than 15 per cent, of their wages; or by presenting them with wrist-watches and other such gifts; or by offering them horses to ride during the early marches. The other extreme, however, was recorded when one party expected their porters to carry loads of 70 lb. in addition to their own kit of 10 to 20 lb. Prodigious feats of load-carrying by Sherpa porters have been recorded on occasion, but they are not to be emulated. A porter's normal load should not exceed 50 to 60 lb. and on difficult ground and above the snow-line it should be rather less.

The following revised rates of compensation payable for injury or death to porters were introduced in August 1950 by the Political Officer in Sikkim:

Undertaking to pay Compensation

I hereby undertake to pay any porter, sirdar, or other servant hired by me for the purpose of my tour, or to his dependants, or failing that to his nearest living relative, compensation on the undermentioned scale, in the event of his meeting death or suffering injury while in my employ:

(a) Injury: Partial or whole loss of finger or toe: Rs. 10 per joint or part of a joint lost or damaged, exccpt on the index finger, thumb, or great toe, when the amount shall be doubled.

Partial or total loss of a limb .... Rs. 150

Loss of sight of both eyes .... Rs. 500

Loss of sight of one eye . . . . . Rs. 300

In addition to such compensation a subsistence allowance of Rs. 15 per month will be paid to any porter who is incapacitated from work through accident or frost-bite on an expedition, for a period up to a maximum of twelve months.

(b) Death: Married man .... Rs. 1,000

Single man ...... Rs. 500

Female porter (whether married or single) . Rs. 500