Himalayan Journal vol.10
The Himalayan Journal

Publication year:

Kenneth Mason
    (F. Ludlow)
    (J. B. Auden)
    (John Hunt and C.R. Cooke)
    (Y. Hotta)
    (J.A. K. Martyn)
    (Kenneth Mason)
  9. NANGA PARBAT, 1937
  10. THE KASHMIR ALPS, 1937
    (James Waller)
    (J. O. M. ROBERTS)
  15. NOTES


Kenneth Mason

Throughout the early surveys of the Himalaya and Karakoram during the last century surveyors were faced with the difficulty of finding names for the mountain features they explored and mapped. Except for rivers which frequently had several names along their courses, for valleys and passes, and for an occasional mountain looked upon as sacred, natives of the Himalaya rarely give names to features, and there must be hundreds of thousands of unnamed summits. During those early surveys, the Survey of India authorities, responsible for the mapping of the mountains, resolutely refused to allow their maps to be covered by personal and descriptive English names, a policy for which modern mountaineers ought to be profoundly thankful. Montgomerie's plan was to introduce a regional system for the Karakoram, designating the whole region by the letter 'K', and the individual summits K1, K2, K3, and so on. In other parts surveyors adopted other methods, some by their own initials followed by a number, such as T4S, R264, others by Roman figures, such as lxxix. Nevertheless, private travellers and explorers have on their own maps introduced descriptive or personal names, such as 'Broad Peak5, 'the Golden Throne', 'Mount Hawk’, 'Mount Hardinge', and so on, and these have been at variance with the accepted principles of the Survey of India and of the Government of India. Writing in 1906, Colonel Sir Sidney Burrard, f.r.s., then Superintendent of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India, gave his views as follows:1 'The nomenclature of a mountain region should not be forced: it should grow spontaneously, and we should never invent a name until its absence has become inconvenient.'

That is a sound general principle, and it served well during the last century; but with the great increase in travel and exploration, both for pleasure and for scientific purposes, during the present century, the lack of accepted and official names has to-day become very inconvenient, and it has been felt for some time that some further guidance for geographers and mountaineers should be given by the authorities in this matter.

It was during my study of the literature of the Karakoram more than twenty years ago that I noted the growing inconsistency and confusion among travellers and writers regarding the names of even the larger features of the region, and on my return from my exploration in 1926 I called attention to this question and put forward certain tentative proposals to the Royal Geographical Society and to the Surveyor-General of India, Sir Edward Tandy. I devoted considerable time to collecting references from published sources, discussed the problem both personally and by letter with various explorers, travellers, and experts, and compiled a map of the whole region from Survey of India and other sources. Discussion showed that opinion was sharply divided on my proposals, and it became necessary, if general agreement was to be secured, to consider the whole problem afresh, in the light of the most recent surveys.

1 A Sketch of the Geography and Geology of the Himalaya Mountains and Tibet, Colonel S. G. Burrard and H. H. Hayden, 1st ed., 1907-8, p. 15.

At that time we were mainly interested in the major divisions of the Karakoram mountains; but in the course of collecting material I made a large number of notes regarding the names of individual summits, intending to tackle this question at a later date. When, therefore, the Surveyor-General accepted the invitation of the Royal Geographical Society to be represented in London at a conference on the subject of Karakoram nomenclature, it seemed particularly convenient to bring up for discussion, not only the systematic naming of the main features of the region, but also the names of individual mountains. It seemed all the more appropriate to do so in view of the important letter circulated in 1936 by the Surveyor- General laying down the principles that would guide the authorities in India in future.[1] I therefore drew up a detailed memorandum for discussion at the conference to be held during the winter of 1936-7, under the chairmanship of Colonel Sir Charles Close, f.r.s., at which the Survey of India was represented by Colonel C. G. Lewis.

This draft memorandum was exhaustively discussed point by point at a large number of informal meetings of members of the conference. As soon as the first general principles were agreed upon, the general approval of the Surveyor-General was sought and obtained. As work progressed, Colonel Lewis explained the proposals to Sir Sidney Burrard, who had taken so active an interest in the matter since it became acute some ten years before. Typed copies were sent to India for examination and criticism. By the time the conference met officially on the 23rd March 1937, the revised memorandum, which had been circulated for a last scruntiny, was practically in its final form. With a few minor amendments it was then set up in type and copies were circulated to those geographers and travellers known to be interested.

The proposals have met with general and generous approval. They were reported to the Council of the Royal Geographical Society and submitted to the Surveyor-General of India for sanction. They were examined closely in India and in a letter dated the 30th August 1937 the Surveyor-General gave his approval to them without qualification of any kind. Since then they have been published in the Geographical Journal, vol. xci, 1938, pp. 123-52. A number of letters have been received expressing satisfaction both with the Surveyor-General's letter of October 1936 and with the conclusions of the conference. Very occasionally some regret is expressed with the decision to drop some particular but previously unofficial name, such as 'Golden Throne', or some difference of opinion has been expressed regarding the application of a native name, on the grounds of faulty derivation or spelling.1

The Karakoram

The Karakoram

The general principles underlying the scheme have been to define and name the topographical features as they exist to-day and to avoid theorizing on their structure and origin. Much of the confusion that has arisen in recent years has been due to the introduction of conflicting theories of structure based on insufficient data. Once we had a comprehensive map showing not only the relief and topography clearly from the most recent surveys, but also such details as the ice and permanent snow, it became a problem of dividing the whole region into suitable geographical blocks, of sub-dividing these blocks into suitable groups and massifs, and then of searching for and agreeing upon the most suitable names. This meant a detailed study of the writings and maps of a large number of explorers and cartographers, and the settlement of a number of conflicting statements. The names of the larger divisions were first agreed upon. The name 'Karakoram', which had originally been extended from the pass of that name to the mountains by European geographers, was further extended to include the whole region to which subsequent travellers have applied it, while the term 'The Great Karakoram' was accepted for the great alinement of ice massifs that extends from one end of the region to the other. It was felt that the locally preferred name 'Muztagh', which also had considerable historical significance, could be suitably applied to the major divisions of the Great Karakoram. The muztaghs lent themselves to subdivision into groups, and the groups into massifs and individual peaks. It was felt that the term muztagh was inappropriate either linguistically or descriptively for the subdivisions of the lesser Karakoram, and, for want of a better term, they were called 'ranges'. ' I 'he muztaghs have been named in every instance but one from the 1 m cat glaciers which drain them; the ranges of the Lesser Karakoram from the most conspicuous mountain on their alinement.

1 Among the correspondence received was a most interesting letter from Brigadier-General Sir George Cockerill, c.b., regarding the naming of a peak in Hunza. In view of the importance of the questions raised I submitted the letter to both Colonel R. C. F. Schomberg, c.i.e., d.s.o., who has recently travelled in the region, and to Colonel D. L. R. Lorimer, c.i.e. ; all three are members of the Himalayan Club. At the end of the report on the Karakoram Conference, I have printed the letters in full with their permission, for they are most instructive regarding the difficulties involved in these questions of nomenclature (see below, pp. 116-25). Should the Surveyor-General decide on any alterations in the spelling of names decided upon, they will be printed in the next Himalayan Journal.

The groups have been named from the best-known locally named feature, often a glacier, whenever possible from the most accessible side; tliere are a few exceptions, where it has been deemed advisable to retain some name that has long been associated with the group in existing literature, as, for instance, the Kanjut group. A few of the more important unnamed peaks have been named, either from their group-names, or from an accessible locality, with a suitable affix such as Sar, or Kangri, according to the language of the region, ,md according to local practice. A few of the recognized English names for the best-known and most prominent peaks have been retained, but only a very few. The names so retained from long usage are K2, the Muztagh Tower, and Broad Peak. The 'Hidden Peak’ of Conway has long been known in the records of the Survey of India as Gasherbrum I, and this official name is retained; it was known to and its height was determined by the Survey of India long before Conway saw it. The conspicuous unclimbed summit northeast of K2, inappropriately called 'Staircase' on unofficial maps of the past, has been named 'Skyang Kangri', from the glacier on its north. A number of other unofficial English names for peaks have been rejected; some of these peaks have been renamed, while the renaming of others has been left to subsequent travellers. All personal names have been discarded. Notes are given in the appendixes explaining the different questions involved. Regions which are or were inadequately mapped at the time of the conference have been left in outline for subsequent treatment.


(The recommendations of the Karakoram Conference as accepted by the Council of the Royal Geographical Society and approved by the Surveyor-General of India are printed below).

I. The term Karakoram. We recommend that the term 'The Karakoram' be used to denote the mountain region whose boundaries are defined thus:

On the south: by the Shyok river from its bend at about long. 78° 15' (map sheets 52 j, f, b, a, 43 m) to its junction with the Indus, about long. 750 55'; then by the Indus to its junction with the Gilgit river about long. 740 40' (43 1); and by the Gilgit river (43 1, 42 l, h) to the confluence of the Ishkoman river about long. 730 45'.

On the west: by the Ishkoman and Karumbar rivers (42 h, l) to the Ghilinji pass.

On the north: from the Chilinji pass, down the Ghapursan river, over the Kermin pass to Rich, and down the Kilik river to its junction with the Khunjerab (42 l) ; then up the Khunjerab river to the Khunjerab pass, across the head of the Oprang Pamir to the Oprang pass, and down the Oprang river to its junction with the Shaksgam (42 p) ; then up the Shaksgam river to its source at Wood's pass 'G' (for which we propose the name Shaksgam pass) (42 p, 51 d, 52 a, e) ; then to the snout of the Rimo-Yarkand river source, and by the left bank of the Rimo glacier to the junction of the Rimo river and the Chip-chap (52 e).

On the east: by the upper Shyok from the Rimo-Chip-chap junction to the great bend in the river about long. 78° 15' (52 e, f, j).

Note. The use of the term 'the Karakoram' for a region is in accordance with the general usage among geographers for many years past, but up till now the boundaries have not been defined. The proposed boundaries exclude the Aghil mountains, all mountains east of the upper Shyok and on the Tibetan plateau, the mountains between the Shy ok and the Indus rivers (cthe Ladakh range'), but they include the mountains of Hunza west of the Hunza river, as far as the Karumbar-Ishkoman river.

Though not directly in the terms of reference of the conference, we suggest that 'the Aghil mountains' be defined by the Shaksgam on the south and west as far as the Oprang confluence, on the north by the Shaksgam and Raskam (Yarkand) rivers, and on the east by the Yarkand river tributary draining from the Karakoram pass.

We also suggest that the 'Ladakh range' be restricted to the definite range in Ladakh, between the Indus and Shyok rivers; that the term 'Zaskar mountains' be restricted to the mountains of Zaskar, or at least not extended east of the upper Sutiej; and that the term 'Deosai mountains' be applied to the mountain region defined on the north by the Indus from long. 76° 15' to long. 74° 45', and on the south by the Astor, the Das Kirin, and the Shingo rivers, to the junction of the latter with the Suru river, and then by the Suru river to its confluence with the Indus.

II. The Great Karakoram. We recommend that the term 'The Great Karakoram' be given to the main crest zone of the Karakoram, from the mountain Koz Sar (36° 43' 10", 740 05' 19", map 42 l) in the west, along the crest zone south of the Batura glacier, north of the Hispar, Panmah, Baltoro, and Siachen glaciers, and along the watershed between the Nubra and upper Shyok rivers.

III. Divisions of the Great Karakoram. We consider it desirable to divide the Great Karakoram into sections, and to apply the descriptive term muztagh1 to each section. The sections proposed are as follows:

(a) The Batura Muztagh: from Koz Sar, south of the Batura

glacier, to the gorge of the Hunza river (42 l) .

(b) The Hispar Muztagh: from the gorge of the Hunza river,

north of the Hispar glacier, to the head basin of the Biafo glacier (42 p).

(c) The Panmah Muztagh: the groups drained by the Panmah glacier and its main tributaries from the head of the Biafo glacier to the West Muztagh pass (42 p, 51 d, 52 a).

(d) The Baltoro Muztagh: from the West Muztagh pass, north and east throughout the length of the Baltoro glacier, to its head south-east of the Gasherbrum group (52 a).

(e) The Siachen Muztagh: from the above head of the Baltoro glacier along the northern mountains of the Siachen glacier and south of the Shaksgam valley, as far as the pass between the Teram Shehr and Rimo glaciers, thence north of the Central Rimo glacier to its snout (52 a, e).

1 Muz - ice; tagh - mountain. Muztagh, not Mustagh, is correct.

(F) The Rimo Muztagh: from the pass between the Teram Shehr and Rimo glaciers along the mountain groups between the Siachen and the upper Shyok, as far as the Saser pass (52 e) .

(G) The Saser Muztagh: from the Saser pass to the south-eastern extremity of the Great Karakoram in the bend between the upper Shyok and the Shyok rivers (52 e, f, j) .

IV. Mountain groups of the Great Karakoram. On small-scale maps it is neither feasible nor desirable to enter any but the most important peak names; but it is possible now to classify the peaks in groups, and we considered that it would be convenient if group names were to be inserted on small-scale maps; peak names, excepting those of the most important, being reserved for maps on the scale of 1: 250,000 and larger. An attempt to group the peaks of the Great Karakoram muztaghs has been made in Appendix I of this report.

V. Mountain divisions of the Lesser Karakoram. So far we have only dealt with divisions and subdivisions of the Great Karakoram. The mountains of the Lesser Karakoram are not so easy to deal with, for they do not lie on a single long alinement of groups. The most important of them, however, fall on a series of shorter alinements, which might be called 'ranges', though the term is not very satisfactory. They correspond to the muztaghs of the Great Karakoram, but we consider this Turki word to be unsuitable for them.

(A) North of the Great Karakoram, in Hunza territory, there are two systems of mountains, one on each side of the Hunza river, which may be called the Lupghargroup and the Ghujerab mountains respectively.

The remainder of any importance all lie to the south of the Great Karakoram, and may be conveniently listed on the following alinements:1

(B) The Rakaposhi range, from the Hunza river west of the peak Rakaposhi, following the snowy crest zone between the Hispar and Ghogo Lungma glaciers as far east as long. 750 30'. Two subsidiary groups at the eastern end may be considered independent of Rakaposhi. These are the Ganchen group and the Meru group.

(C)The Haramosh range, from where it joins the Rakaposhi range about long. 74° 50', along the crest zone between the Ghogo Lungma glacier, Basha and Shigar rivers on the north and the Indus on the south.

1 The new survey of 1931 in sheet 42 l is not available in England; consequently we have not attempted to group the mountains between the Gilgit and Hunza rivers south of the Batura Muztagh.

(D) The Masherhrum range, from the junction of the Braldu and Basha rivers, west of Mango Gusor, along the crest zone south of the Braldu river and Baltoro glacier, as far east as the Kondus glacier and valley. Two independent groups, at present unnamed, extend south from the Masherbrum range.

(E) The Saltoro range lies between the Kondus on the the west, Siachen and the Nubra on the east, and the Shyok valley on the south. It is crossed by the Saltoro or Bilafond pass.

An attempt has been made to group the various massifs of these 'ranges' in Appendix II.


Mountain Groups of the Great Karakoram

In the following lists an attempt has been made to collect the mountains of the Great Karakoram into groups, and to name these groups from some geographical feature, generally the most important glacier draining from them. Some groups are, of course, better known than others, and it has been easier in these instances to define the group boundaries with greater precision.

Occasionally comments have been made on peak names, while a few adcfitional names have been suggested.

Where possible, the latitudes, longitudes, and heights have been given from the Survey of India triangulation pamphlets, unless stated otherwise for definite reasons, and where other values of peak co-ordinates have been obtained by other observers comment has been made.

Figures in italics are only approximate, and are measured from topographical maps; they are only given for the purposes of identification. Where co-ordinates are given only to the nearest minute, thus 36° 35', 740 19', the map from which they are taken is not directly adjustable to existing Survey of India maps. Heights shown in brackets, thus (21,250), are derived approximately from an examination of the contours.

Where names for individual peaks have been suggested, the principle has been to name them from the most accessible valley or glacier draining them. Suggested new names for peaks are shown in italics; old names that we recommend should be dropped are in brackets.

Mountain Groups of the Great Karakoram

(A) Batura Muztagh: map 42 L.

(a) Koz group, at the head of the Koz Yaz (glacier).

Name. Height Lat. Long. Peak No. and map
Koz Sar 21,907 36° 43' 10" 740 05' 19" Pk. 2/42 L
--- 21,250 36 43 24 74 06 55 Pk. 1/42 L
--- 20,345 36 43 74 11 42L

(b) Yashkuk group, at the head of the Yashkuk glacier.

Name. Height Lat. Long. Peak No. and map
Koz Sar 21,548 36° 40' 740 13' 42 l
--- 21,915 36 39 74 14 42 L
--- 20,060 36 38 74 16 42L

(c) Kampire Dior group, at the watershed between the Batura and Yashkuk glaciers. Kampire Dior, 'the house of the old woman', is derived from a well-known legend of the Chapursan valley, the best version of which is given by Lorimer in Geographical Journal, vol. lxxi (1928), p. 535.

Kampire Dior 23,434 36° 37' 32" 74° 19`10" Pk. 24/42 l
22,740 36 38 24 74 21 33 Pk. 23/42 L

(d) Kuk group, at the head of the Kuk-i-jerab valley. Kuk Sar signifies 'the summit of Kuk'.

Kuk Sar 22,751 36° 40' 08" 740 25' 18" Pk. 21/42L
22,050 36 39 06 74 25 23 Pk. 22/42 l

(e) Batura group, the enclosing south wall of the head of the Batura glacier.

22,547 36° 35' 740 19' 42 L
22,590 36 34 08" 74 22 51" Pk. 25/42 L
22,409 36 33 20 74 25 50 Pk. 48/42 L
25,294 36 31 54 74 30 01 Pk. 31/42L
25,540 36 30 39 74 31 26 Pk. 32/42 L

Peaks 32 and 31 are known in the Survey of India records as Hunza- Kunji I and Hunza-Kunji II. 'Kunji' really means nothing and is probably a triangulator's error for 'Kanjut', another name for Hunza. There is no sense in the compound name, but it is difficult to suggest a better name until the southern slopes of the massif are surveyed. (For Burrard's views, see his Sketch, See., 2nd ed., vol. i, pp. 51, 52.)

(f) Pasu group, at the head of the Pasu glacier.

23,897 36° 28' 51" 74° 36'53" Pk. 55/42L
24,970 36 26 30 74 40 52 Pk. 33/42 l

The triangulator's designation for Peak 33, Hunza-Kunji III, should be dropped.

(g) Atabad group, the eastern group of the great ridge, extending to Atabad hill-station of the Indo-Russian triangulation, above the village of Atabad.

Boiohaghur Duanasir 24,044 36° 24' 10" 74041'43" Pk. 34/42 l
- - 36 23 32 74 42 57 Pk. 35/42 L

Boiohaghur Duanasir, 'where only the horse of the devil can go', is the name given to Conway and Bruce for this peak by the people of Baltit in 1892. Its name in Survey records is Hunza-Kunji IV. According to Burrard (Sketch, Geol. Geog. Him. and Tib., 2nd ed., p. 49), Colonel Lorimer sees in this word three Burushaski words: Boyo, a divine animal; haghur, a horse; and donas, one who opens. Possibly a more correct form than that given to Bruce would be Boyohaghur Donas Sar, but since the Burushaski language presents difficulty and is little known, it seems advisable to retain the form Boiohaghur Duanasir.[2]

From the survey made of the Batura and this region on the Vissers' expedition of 1925, it would appear that the height of Peak 35 is about 24,500 feet. Its old name is Hunja-Kunji V. It would, we think, be a mistake to retain these 'Hunza-Kunji' names at intervals along this Batura Muztagh.

(B) Hispar Muztagh: map 42 p.

(a) Momhil group, at the head of the Momhil glacier.

- 23,500 36° 20' 56" 75° 00' 51" Pk. 3/42P
Momhil Sar 24,090 36 19 03 75 02 10 Pk. 7/42 p
- 22,500 36 22 43 75 02 47 Pk. 2/42 p
- 24,860 36 17 19 75 04 48 Pk. 8/42 p

Momhil, 'the grazing-ground of the old woman', i.e. no one but an old fool would think of grazing there. Momhil Sar, the 'summit of Momhil', the chief peak at the head of the Momhil glacier. (For Momhil, see Schom- berg, Unknown Karakoram, p. 233.) The old triangulators' name 'Kunjut No. 3' is meaningless.2

(b) Disteghil group, at the head of the Malangutti Yaz glacier, in which lies Diste Ghil, 'the sheepfold in the hill'. Schomberg's spelling is to be preferred to Visser's Dasto Ghil, which is at present on the map. We think that the peak should have the addition Sar, but it is a small point. Visser's spelling of the Malangutti Yaz is to be preferred to Cockerill's and Bridge's corruption Malungidiaz.3

Disteghil Sar (Dasto Ghil) 25,868 36° 19' 35" 750 11' 20" Pk. 20/42 p
- 25,250 36 19 09 75 13 10 Pk. 5/42 p
- 23,050 36 220 75 09 42 p and Visser
- 24,030 36 18 75 14 42 p
- 24,800 36 17 75 13 42 p

(c) Yazghil group, at the head of the Yazghil glacier.4 Yazghil means either 'the sheepfold in the snow', or perhaps, according to Schomberg, 'the curving ice'. Yaz is either ice or snow, and is the common word for a glacier, while ghil is descriptive of anything circular or round, and is generally applied to a circular sheepfold. Only one important peak has been fixed in this group as yet, and this is probably more conspicuous from the Hispar side, at the head of the Pumarikish glacier. We therefore suggest the name Pumarikish for it, instead of its old triangulators' name 'Kunjut No. 2'.

Pumarikish 24,580 36° 12' 45" 750 15' 12" Pk. 11/42P

2 See below, p. 124.-Ed. 4 See below, p. 124.-Ed.

(d) Kanjut group, at the head of the large Jutmaru glacier tributary of the Hispar. A name for one of the summits is forthcoming from its chief glacier. The old name for Kanjut Sar was 'Kunjut No. 1’.

Yukshin Sar 20,570 36° 14' 00" 75° 23' 00" 42 p
Kanjut Sar 25,460 36 12 21 75 25 03 Pk. 12/42P

(e) Khurdopin group, a cluster of summits at the head of the Khurdopin glacier, none of which is as yet well fixed. There was a discrepancy here between Khan Sahib Afraz Gul's plane-table and the work of both Conway and the Workmans. Individual names should certainly not be given in the present state of our knowledge, but there is undoubtedly a well-marked group which might well be named the 'Khurdopin group'. On the map they are shown approximately as follows:

- 24,100 36° 08' 750 27'
- 23,000 36 07 75 34
- 21,780 36 15 75 36 42 p (from Visser, 1925)
- 21,250 36 17 75 36
- 20,460 36 08 75 38

(f) Virjerab group, a group of mountains at the head of the Virjerab glacier and between that glacier and the Khurdopin. The limits of this group should at present be undefined, as it has not been triangulated and is little known.

- 21,180 36° a' 75° 39'
- 21,510 36 09 75 43 42 p (from visser, 1925)
- 20,720 36 11 75 43

(C) Panmah Muztagh: maps 42 p, 51 d, 52 a.

(a) Nobande Sobande group, at the head and left of the Nobande Sobande glacier, as far as about long. 750 57'. This group is only roughly known, first from Godwin Austen's surveys (1861) and latterly from those of the Spoleto expedition of 1929. One peak only has been named and its height is not yet known with any accuracy. The spelling Nobande Sobande, used on Spoleto's map, is probably more correct than Nobundi Sobundi of Godwin Austen. Panmah is similarly more correct than Punmah.

Bobisghir - 36° 02' 75° 48' 42 p (from

Spoleto, 1929)

(b) Drenmang group, the mountains of the main watershed from about longitude 750 57' (Spoleto's map) eastwards, including those at the head of the Drenmang glacier as far south as latitude 350 59'. Skamri is an important massif of this group, but its height and topography are not yet known in any detail.

(c) Chiring group, at the head of the Chiring glacier, south of the Drenmang group as far as the West Muztagh pass.

No peaks have been defined accurately for height in these three groups of the Panmah Muztagh, and no names except Bobisghir and Skamri have been given.

(d) Choktoi group, between the Choktoi glacier and the Nobande Sobandr glacier. At present we know very little of the group and no peaks have4 been fixed by triangulation.

(e) Latok group, between the Biafo glacier and the Choktoi and Panmah glaciers. There is undoubtedly a high group here at the head of the Latok tributary glacier of the Biafo. Three summits have been triangulated and are listed below. For a discussion on them and their relation to surrounding topography, see Himalayan Journal, vol. vi, 1934, p. 71.

- 23,900 35° 56'54" 75° 45' 11" Pk. 18/43 m
- 23,440 35 55 43 75 49 24 Pk. 19/43 m
- 22,790 35 55 14 75 50 21 Pk. 20/43 m

Conway named the first 'the Ogre'; Mrs. Bullock Workman considered the illustration given by Conway as 'the Ogre* was of a smaller mountain nearer to the Biafo, and named the 23,900-foot summit 'Kailasa', showing it with a height 23,914 feet. Auden agreed with the Workmans that 'the Ogre' of Conway was not the high peak, and stated that this faulty identification of Conway had thrown out the position of the Biafo glacier on his map. It appears to us too early to assign names to individual peaks of this group, but we recommend that neither 'the Ogre' nor 'Kailasa' should be adopted.1

(D) Baltoro Muztagh: map 52 a.

(a) Paiju group, at the extreme western end of the Baltoro Muztagh, includes the mountains west of the main trunk of the Trango glacier tributary of the Baltoro. It includes the mountains enclosing the Surgus, Borum, and Choricho glacier tributaries of the Panmah, as well as the remarkable Paiju Peak (21,650 feet), with its strata set vertically, which gives it an 'organ-pipe' appearance (for illustrations see De Filippi's Karakoram and Western Himalaya, particularly Panorama B, which shows the whole of the Baltoro Muztagh from Paiju peak to Gasherbrum; see also Himalayan Journal, vol. ix). The co-ordinates of Paiju peak are approximately 350 43' 00", 76° 07' 00", 21,650 feet.

(b) Trango group, east of the Paiju group, includes the mountains east of the main trunk of the Trango glacier and those west of the Dunge glacier (longitude 76° 13'). The heights of various conspicuous summits are given on Spoleto's map between the Trango and Dunge glaciers, but we do not k now the height of the most conspicuous summit, the Trango tower. The spelling Trango is probably better than Spoleto's Tramgo, or the older Survey spelling Trahonge.

(c) Lobsang group, at the head of the Muztagh glacier and its tributaries.

The glaciers here are shown incorrectly on Conway's map. Ferber's map, in Geographical Journal, vol. xxx (December 1907), shows the glaciers better, but they are shown best on Spoleto's map of 1929. Abruzzi (1909) did not survey them. We suggest the name Lobsang group from the ancient camping ground of Lobsang Brangsa in the trough of the Muztagh glacier. This name 'Muztagh glacier' was apparently given by Ferber as leading to Younghusband's East Muztagh pass, and has been adopted since by Abruzzi and Spoleto, though it is not the local name. Three summits are conspicuous; their heights are known with fair accuracy, and they have been named.

1 Bobisghir, Skamri, and 'the Ogre' appear in the illustrations opposite pp. 38, and 40 respectively, in this volume.-Ed.

Biale (6,729 m.) 22,080 350 49' 76° 15' Spoleto
Lobsang (6,225 m.) 20,420 35 48 76 18 Spoleto
Muztagh Tower(7,273 m.) 23,860 35 50 76 22 Spoleto

Biale is spelt Piale on Conway's and Ferber's maps, when used for the glacier name. Guillarmod gave Biale and De Filippi followed suit. Spoleto's map gives Biale for both peak and glacier, as well as the height; and as his party spent some time in the region, his spelling should, we think, be accepted.

'Seven Pagodas' was given as a descriptive name by Ferber, who shows an illustration in Geographical Journal, vol. xxx (December 1907). Lobsang Brangsa, 'Lobsang camping-ground', is at the foot of the peak, and we suggest the name Lobsang instead of 'Seven Pagodas' for the peak. The height is from Spoleto's map.

The Muztagh Tower is one of the most striking peaks in the whole Karakoram, and has been commented upon by almost every traveller to those parts from Conway onwards. Conway named it; there are some striking photographs of it in De Filippi's Karakoram and Western Himalaya. The name is now so well known in Karakoram literature and is so suitable for this great rock tower that it would be right, in our opinion, to retain it. Its height has been determined by photographic survey as 7,273 m. (23,860 feet). It is far more conspicuous than the lower 'Black Tooth', which rises to the south-east to a height of 6,719 m., and is part of the same massif. (We think that 'Black Tooth' was named by Ferber, and are not absolutely certain of its position on Spoleto's map.)

Spoleto's map shows another great peak with a height of 6,974 m- (22,550 feet) at the head of the 'Younghusband glacier'. Nothing is as yet known of this summit, and we suggest that it be at present excluded from any group. We also suggest provisionally renaming the 'Younghusband glacier' the Biange glacier, from the camping-ground used by Abruzzi at its mouth, or possibly leaving the glacier unnamed.

(d) K2 group, at the head of the 'Godwin Austen glacier'.

The name 'Godwin Austen glacier' was given by Conway. Being a personal name, it is unsuitable, as are the other personal names in this region, such as the Savoia pass, the Savoia glacier, De Filippi glacier, Sella pass, which all first appeared on Abruzzi's map after his 1909 expedition.

- 23,520 55° 50' 3°" 76° 26' (7,170 m. Spoleto)
- 23,830 35 52 76 27 (7,263 m. Spoleto)
- 22,330 35 51 76 2930" (6,805 m- Spoleto) (22,490 feet Abruzzi)
K2 28,250 35 52 55 76 30 51 Pk. 13/52 a
- 25,354 35 52 40 76 31 45 Pk. 14/42 a (Abruzzi)
Skyang Kangri('Staircase') 24,750 35 54 40 76 33 35 Pk. 12/52 a
- 23,020 35 56 76 34 (Mason)

Only the more important summits have been included in the above list, from the Survey of India triangulation pamphlet 52 a, from Spoleto's map, and from the Shaksgam survey, 1926.

Peak 22,330 is the highest summit on the south ridge of K2. Peak 25,354 is not a true peak, but merely a shoulder or flattening of the steep east ridge of K2. Abruzzi's height for 'Staircase peak' (24,078 feet) is much too low. Two photographic heights from the 1926 results, based on the height of K2 (28,250), gave closely agreeing heights with a mean of 24,750 feet. Spoleto's map follows Abruzzi and gives 7,339 m. = 24,078 feet. Professor Mason is convinced this is wrong.

The surveyor's name Skiyang Lungpa would be better spelt Skyang Lungpa. Skyang or Kyang means 'wild ass'. The initial's' before consonants 'g', 'k', and 'p', which is silent in some parts of Tibet, is generally pronounced in the Ladakhi dialect, e.g. Spiti, Skyangpo-che (see Rec. Surv. of India, vol. xxii, pp. 172-3).

This name 'Skyang Lungpa glacier' is much more suitable for the glacier draining eastwards from 'Staircase peak' than the 'Windy Gap glacier' (Ghiacciaio delta Sella dei Venti), which was given by Spoleto; and if it is accepted, we suggest that 'Staircase peak' be renamed Skyang Kangri ('the ice-mountain of the wild ass') from the glacier.

(e) 'Broad' group, bounding the 'Godwin Austen glacier' on the east.

The name 'Broad Peak' was given by Conway in 1892. There are no Survey of India triangulated points in this group, and Conway did not determine the height of the highest point. On Abruzzi's map the height of Broad peak is given as 27,132 feet, but no peak of that altitude was found by Mason in the region in 1926. Mason's photographic height for the highest peak, in almost exactly the same position as Abruzzi's Broad peak, was 26,400 feet (see Geographical Journal, October 1927, p. 349, and .ideographic survey map accompanying that paper). The other peaks given below are from Spoleto's map, on which he has shown a height of 11,051 m. (26,414 feet) for the highest peak, and approximately the same heights as Abruzzi for the others, except point 25,330, for which Abruzzi gives 26,188, which seems also too high. Spoleto's metric heights have been included below.

- (7,930) 26,017 350 50' 25" 76° 33' 40" Pk. 15/52 a
- (7,862) 25,925 35 49 76 33 40 52 a
(8,051) 26,414 35° 43' 35" 76° 34' 25" Pk. 16/52 a
(7,721) 25,330 35 48 20 76 34 40 Pk. 17/52 a
(7,470) 24,510 35 47 50 76 35 30 Pk. 18/52 a


Broad peak

(f) Gasherbrum group, the conspicuous group at the head of the main trunk of the Baltoro glacier, comprising two main massifs.

On Conway's map Gasherbrum I is named 'Hidden peak', and the name Gasherbrum is reserved for the massif containing peaks II, III, and IV, which rise from a long east-to-west ridge. Gasherbrum I is hidden from the main Baltoro glacier by Peak 24,019 (Peak 22/52 a), which rises from the southern ridge of Gasherbrum IV. It is by far the most conspicuous of the group from the south and east. We prefer to retain Gasherbrum I, and to drop 'Hidden peak'.

The Survey of India triangulated positions were all checked by photographic survey in 1926. Mason's positions and heights of Gasherbrum I and II agreed almost exactly with the Survey of India values, but his heights for Gasherbrum III and IV were 26,000 and 26,180 instead of 26,090 and 26,000, making IV slightly higher than III. We prefer however the Survey heights, as only the tips were seen by Mason; the Survey heights are given below. These were accepted on Spoleto's map.

Of the other peaks included, 24,500 is a prominent summit on the eastern arete of Gasherbrum II (the height 7,772 m. or 25,500 feet shown on Spoleto's map is not correct, the ridge east of Gasherbrum II falling much more steeply than is shown). Points 24,019 and 22,980 are conspicuous summits on the south ridge of Gasherbrum IV, the heights being taken from Spoleto's map in preference to Abruzzi's, which gives 24,019 and 23,589 respectively.

Gasherbrum IV 26,000 35° 45' 38" 76° 37' 02" Pk. 19/52 a
Gasherbrum III 26,090 35 45 36 76 38 33 Pk. 20/52 a
Gasherbrum II 26,360 35 45 31 76 39 15 Pk. 21/52 a
- 24,500 35 45 76 39 (Mason)2
- 24,019 35 43 50 76 36 50 Pk. 22/52 a
- 22,980 35 42 30 76 38 (Spoleto)
Gasherbrum I (Hidden Peak) 26,470 3543 30 76 41 48 Pk. 23/52 a

(E) Siachen Muztagh: maps 52 a, 52 e.

(a) Sia group, at the extreme head of the Siachen glacier. It was named by Mrs. Bullock Workman, after her 1912 expedition, 'King George V group', a name which has never been accepted by the Survey of India. Siachen means 'great rose', the Siachen glacier being so named because of the wild rose bushes near its snout. We suggest the name Sia group, partly because of the name Siachen, and partly because of the connexion of the rose with British royalty, thus giving some recognition to the wishes of the explorer.

1.It is uncertain whether this point, 25,330, is exactly the same as Abruzzi's 26,188 (350 48' 15", 76° 35r 10"); but Mason does not believe that this shoulder on the south-east ridge of the Broad peak is over 26,000 feet, and we consider it better to accept the heights from Spoleto's map.

2. For position see Geographical Journal, October 1927, map accompanying 'Stereographic survey of the Shaksgam'.

Sia Kangri 24,350 350 39' 51" 76° 45' 43' Pk. 41/52 a
- 23,270 35 37 59 76 47 29 Pk. 42/52 a
- 21,440 35 36 36 76 50 08 Pk. 43/52 a

Mrs. Bullock Workman's map of the Siachen glacier, which shows this group, is published in Geographical Journal, vol. xliii, 1914, p. 232. The three peaks are those numbered 17, 16, and 15 in the list of her triangulator, Grant Peterkin, and have been accepted in the Survey of India triangula- tion pamphlet 52 a. The first two were named by her 'Queen Mary' and 'Mt. Hardinge', names which were not accepted by the Survey of India. We suggest the name Sia Kangri, 'the ice-mountain of the rose', for the highest. (Photographs by the Workmans in Two Summers in the Ice-wilds of the Eastern Karakoram, pp. 192, 194.)

Dyhrenfurth's expedition to the upper Baltoro in 1934 maintained that the highest point in the Sia massif ('Queen Mary peak') was over 25,000 feet. It does not seem likely that the Survey of India triangulators, including Collins in 1911, and Mason in 1926, who were definitely on the look-out for high peaks, would have missed one of that altitude. (For a discussion on t,his point see Himalayan Journal, vol. vii, 1935, pp. 145-7.)

(b) Staghar group, the mountains on both sides of the Staghar glacier, bounded on the west by the Urdok glacier and on the south by the Siachen glacier. The highest peak fixed prior to Visser's expedition in 1935 was the following, which was obtained by stereo-photogrammetry in 1926 (Mason), which may be verified from Khan Sahib Afraz Gul's plane-tables on the Visser expedition.

- 21,300 350 47` 00" 76° 46' 00" -

(c) Singhi group, at the head of the large left-bank tributaries of the Singhi glacier. The Singhi glacier was first seen by Mason in 1926, and was crossed by members of the Spoleto expedition in 1929, who named it. It was crossed again by Visser with two surveyors, and surveyed by them.

On the blue print of 52 a, showing Afraz Gul's work compiled with the older surveys, the word is spelt Singi. Unless there is any special reason for the change, the older spelling of those who gave it, Singhi, should be retained.

The group was well fixed by Peterkin on the Bullock Workman expedition to the Siachen glacier in 1912, the highest, 23,630 feet, being named Mount Rose, but for which a better name, in our opinion, would be Singhi Kangri. The three peaks are Nos. 20, 21, and 22 of Grant Peterkin's lists (map, Geographical Journal, vol. xliii, 1914, p. 232), and have been accepted in the Survey of India pamphlets as Peaks 45, 44, and 49, 52 a.

- 22,360 350 35' 47" 76° 57' 32" Pk. 45/52 a
Singhi Kangri(Mt. Rose) 23,630 35 35 56 76 59 05 Pk. 44/52 a
- 20,300 35 32 36 76 59 23 Pk. 49/52 a

(d) Teram Kangri group, a group first seen by Dr. T. G. LongstafFin 1909, after crossing the Saltoro pass or Bilafond La on to the Siachen glacier. It was first triangulated by V. D. B. Collins, Survey of India, in 1911, but without a very good connexion to Indian triangulation. It was next surveyed in more detail by Grant Peterkin, of the Bullock Workman expedition, in 1912 (Geographical Journal, vol. xliii, 1914, p. 232). The name Teram Kangri was given in Dehra Dun by Dr. LongstafF, with the approval of Sir Sidney Burrard, Surveyor-General, from the only locality place-name, Teram, in the region. The alteration of the spelling to Tarim by the Workmans for the glacier tributary of the Siachen is incorrect.

The group was resurveyed from the north by Mason in 1926 by stereo- photogrammetry, based on resection from well-fixed Survey of India triangulated points. Remarkable agreement was obtained with Peterkin's results. The summits below have been given their values from Mason's survey, as these have been used by both Spoleto and Visser for their subsequent surveys in 1929 and 1935. They will be found in the stereographic map of the Kyagar glacier in Geographical Journal, October 1927. Collins's and Grant Peterkin's values are given in brackets for comparison.

Name Height Lat. Long. Authority
Teram Kangri III 24,218* 35° 35' 50" 77 03' 11" Mason
(Pk. 14/53E) (24,218* 35 35 50 77 0311 Collins)
(Siachen No. 23) (24,240 35 36 02 77 03 00 Peterkin)
Teram Kangri I 24,489* 35 34 38 77 05 04 Mason
(Pk. 15/52 e) (24,489* 35 34 38 77 05 04 Collins)
(Siachen No. 24) (24,510 35 34 43 77 04 54 Peterkin)
(Pk. 163/52 e) (24,430 35 34 46 77 05 04 De Filippi)
Teram Kangri II 24,300 35 34 05 77 05 30 Mason
(Siachen No. 25) (24,300 35 34 11 77 05 25 Peterkin)
(Unnamed) 22,920 35 33 18 77 07 40 Mason
(22,890* 35 33 22 77 07 45 Peterkin)
(Unnamed) 22,530 35 33 02 77 08 15 Mason
(Siachen No. 26) (22,530 35 33 °8 77 08 16 Peterkin)
Apsarasas I 23,770 35 32 23 77 09 03 Mason
(Siachen No. 27) (23.770 35 32 22 77 09 01 Peterkin)
Apsarasas II 23,750 35 32 04 77 10 18 Mason
Apsarasas III 23,740 35 31 05 77 12 30 Mason

* The position and height drums were adjusted on Teram Kangri I to Collins's triangulated height for this summit, and checked on Teram Kangri III. All the other positions and heights are quite independent of both Collins's and Peterkin's results. We have only given the three highest summits of the Apsarasas ridge, but Mason found three other summits over 23,000 feet near the last, namely :

- 23,580 35° 31' 12" 77° 11'30" -
- 23,710 35 31 12 77 12 47 -
- 23,570 35 31 15 77 13 11 -

1 Clinometer height.

Grant Peterkin's Peak No. 28 (23,350, 350 31' 57", 770 08' 40") is not on the main ridge, but on the south-west arete of Apsarasas I, while his Peak No. 29 (23,010, 330 31' 05", 770 11' 21") seems to be a summit on the southwest arete of the first of the three summits, 23,580, listed above. These two peaks of Peterkin were hidden from the north.

Wood's Peak 16V52 e (23,720, 350 31' 09", 770 12' 46") is almost certainly the same as Mason's 23,710, 350 31' 12", 770 12' 47'', shown above. Mason was unable to identify his Peak i62/52 e (23,680, 350 31' 08", 770 12' 40"), probably a minor point on the Apsarasas III ridge, which extends westwards to 23,580 and eastwards to 23,570.

The Apsarasas ridge was named by Grant Peterkin. We recommend the adoption of the names of Apsarasas I, II, and III.

(e) Kyagar group, a high group between the Singhi and Kyagar glaciers, surveyed