Himalayan Journal vol.07
The Himalayan Journal

Publication year:

Kenneth Mason
    (H.W. Tilman)
    (I. GENERAL r. finsterwalder)
  5. A VISIT TO NUN KUN, 1934
    (F. S. SMYTHE)
    (J. B. AUDEN)
    (A.P.F. Hamilton)
    (Captain F. KINGDON WARD)
    (P. C. DUNCAN)
    (Lieut.- Colonel Kenneth Mason)
  16. NOTES


Messrs. G. B. Gourlay and J. B. Auden spent October and early November 1934 on a visit to north-eastern Sikkim. Auden went up early with Mr. R. G. Harvey to Mome Samdong and the Sebo La, the pass between the Lachen and Lachung valleys, and not the one leading from Sikkim to Tibet. Later Gourlay, Auden, and A. Banks visited the little-known Sebo Chu valley to the north-east of Lachung, hoping to find the Kharpo La which is shown on the Survey of India sheet 78A. They camped at Sebo Mema, Tsetang, 14,300 ft., and finally at 16,500 feet on the edge of a delightful corrie overlooking the west side of the main Sebo Ghu valley and the Khonpuk glacier. After a remarkably fine day on 14th October, snow fell for three days and forced a retreat to Lachung.

Gourlay and Auden next went up to Mome Samdong, utilizing a yak trail in the snow, and slept two nights in a yak shed. The Donkhya route was impassable for a party of laden porters, owing to the depth and softness of the snow, so, after ascending a spur above Samdong to 17,300 feet to obtain views, they returned down the valley to Chungtang (Tsungtang on map 78A), and thence by Lachen to Kerang, near the Tso Lhamo. Snow was lying on the north side of the Himalayan chain down to 16,000 feet, and a bitter Tibet wind was blowing. In the tents at 17,000 feet 310 of frost were recorded, the lowest the thermometer would read.

They then camped to the east of Kerang at 19,200 feet, and finally at 20,000 feet in a small ravine by the side of a glacier at a bearing of 207° to the 23,180 ft. summit of Pauhunri.

The wind and cold were so intense that they gave up the attempt on the 30th October to climb the ice-slopes of the northern face of Pauhunri and ascended a satellite hill to the north, on the Sikkim- Tibet frontier, to a height of about 21,000 feet (bearing 2190 to Pauhunri). From here a magnificent view was obtained of the Phari plain and Chomo Lhari in Tibet. A fine isolated snow-peak seen at 510 is probably point 23,790, 36 miles east of Gyantse. To the west Kangchenjau and Chomiomo showed up well, together with three isolated peaks in Tibet, at a bearing of 307°, which at the time they hesitatingly thought might be the Everest group, but which must in fact be situated to the north, possibly the Hlako Kangri group, 21,266 feet, 27 miles south-south-west of Lhatse Dzong (sheet 71).

A return was made to Kerang, and then over the col of about 18,500 feet between Lachi and the Kangchenjau massif to Gordamah Lake and Lachen. Snow fell again while they were at Thangu, and it was evident that the winter had properly set in.

The Sebo Chu valley is magnificent, being bounded on the south by the striking Lachung peak, 18,310 feet, called locally Shari-ki-Dhar, and on the north by the great wall of peaks belonging to the Pau- hunri massif. The topography of this area is not shown accurately on the Survey of India maps 77D, 78A.1 There are not two Khonpuk glaciers, but one large glacier fed by glaciers descending from the whole of the upper Sebo Chu amphitheatre. This glacier descends into a valley running over most of its course 17°-197°, somewhat to the east of that shown on the map. A bearing from Tsetang, 14,300 ft. camp, to peak 18,310 is 1880. Five peaks border this amphitheatre in a curved wall, all probably over 20,000 feet in height. Gourlay considers with strong probability that Survey of India peak No. 106, Pauhunri proper, lies to the north of those of the Sebo wall, and is not visible from the Sebo Ghu, while 'peak 3' of the wall (numbering from left to right the peaks actually seen from just below the top 16,500-ft. camp) may be Survey of India peak no. 109. The gap to the west of ‘peak 2’ (peak 2 is 10 3/4 degees from Tsetang, 14,300-ft. camp) is probably the col leading over to the Tista glacier on the northwest side of Pauhunri.

1 The sketch-map I have drawn to illustrate this note shows the topography according to these maps.-Ed.

Along a gully on the east side of Lachi, at bearings of 740 to the northern end of the Tso Lhamo, 130° to Pauhunri and 157° to the Donkhya La, and at a height of about 17,300 feet, they found a series of highly fossiliferous shales and limestones, the preliminary examination of which suggests that the beds are Triassic in age. This find is important in that these Tso Lhamo beds fill the gap between the Lower Permian Lachi beds first found in 1933 by L. R. Wager when on the Everest Expedition, and the Jurassic system which has long been known to cover so much of Tibet.1 If other travellers have a day to spare when camping near the Tso Lhamo, it might interest them to collect more of these fossils, particularly the ammonites, and present them to the Director, Geological Survey of India, Calcutta.

With regard to porters, the Sherpas fell ill almost to a man. They were all tried men from Everest and Nanga Parbat. The symptoms were pains in the head and chest muscles, then a low temperature of about 940 F., followed by a higher temperature, 103° F., and finally exhaustion. It is possible that this illness is malignant malaria, caught in the Tista valley on the way through from Darjeeling to Gangtok. Travellers using Darjeeling porters are advised to supply them beforehand through their sirdar with quinine. The worst locality for malaria appears to be Rangpo, through which the porters normally travel. The sirdar should be told to take his men to Gangtok via Namchi, rather than along the malaria-infested Tista valley.

Most of the work was eventually done by Lachen and Lachung men, a nucleus of five from Lachen previously known to Gourlay being an invaluable help. Gourlay is of the opinion that for most work in Sikkim it is unnecessary to employ Sherpas, and advocates the use of local men. For any mountaineering expedition, as distinct from trekking, boots would be required for those porters going high, and the adoption of local men for this purpose would have one drawback in that the varying and curious shapes of their feet would have to be anticipated in the equipment brought up.

1 Everest 1933, pp. 325, 334 (1934). Mem. Geol. Surv. Ind. xxxvi, pt. 2 (1907).

An International expedition organized by Professor G. O. Dyhren- furth visited the upper Baltoro glacier during 1934. It was mainly financed by the film industry, so that their energies were largely concentrated on this particular side of the enterprise. The organization comprised two sections, a mountaineering group and a film group. The Mountaineering group was composed as follows: Professor Dyhren- furth, leader, film director, geologist; Frau Hettie Dyhrenfurth, transport officer; Marcel Kurz (Neuchatel), topographer; Dr. Hans Winzeler (Schaffhausen), physician; Andre Roch (Geneva); James Belaieff (Paris); Hans Ertl (Munich); Albert Hocht (Munich); Ghiglione (Torino), newspaper reporter to Gazetta del Popolo. The Film group comprised Gustav Diessl (Vienna), chief actor; Jarmila Marton (U.S.A.), actress; Andrew Mar ton (Berlin), director; Richard Angst (Zurich), chief operator; Fritz von Friedl (Berlin), assistant operator.

The party left Srinagar on the 13th May, and by way of the Zoji La reached Skardu on the 28th. Marcel Kurz, the topographer, who had gone ahead, was found laid up in the bungalow with a bad knee following a riding accident, and most unfortunately had to give up his part in the expedition. Five days after leaving Askole the party reached Ordokas (13,900 feet),2 the well-known grazing-ground at the side of the Baltoro glacier, almost due north of Masherbrum, which has previously been the depot camp of almost all expeditions to these parts. The third day after leaving Ordokas the party reached 'Concordia', where the two large head feeders, the Godwin- Austen and the Vigne glaciers, unite with the upper Baltoro, now often called the Abruzzi glacier.3
1 Owing to pressure of work Professor Dyhrenfurth was unable to prepare a full account of his expedition for the Himalayan Journal until February. At the end of that month, after the first part of the Journal had gone to press, I received, through the kindness of Frau Dyhrenfurth, a very rough translation of her husband's paper, with the request that proofs should be sent to her for examination. As this would have delayed the appearance of the Journal considerably, I have decided that it would be best to summarize from the rough account sent by Frau Dyhrenfurth.-Ed.

2 This place is variously spelt by different travellers, Rdokas, Urdukass, Ordo- kass, &c. The Dyhrenfurths spell it Rodokas and give a height of 4,057 m. (- 13,320 feet). I have given above the name and height from the Survey of India map 52A.

3 Concordia' was first surveyed by Godwin-Austen in 1861; the map was improved by Conway in 1891; and the whole region as far as the foot of Golden Throne was surveyed in considerable detail by photogrammetry on the Duke of the

Dyhrenfurth had planned to place his base camp about eight miles south-east of Concordia on a moraine of the Abruzzi glacier, and the vanguard of the expedition established the base here on the 23rd June. While Frau Dyhrenfurth remained in charge of this camp, reconnaissances were undertaken in various directions. The most important of these were of the southern approaches to Gasherbrum I (the 'Hidden Peak' of Lord Conway), 26,470 feet, and of the approaches to Conway's Saddle, at the head of the glacier, to which they give the height 6,300 m. (= 20,685 feet) following Desio's map. During the same time Ghiglione reconnoitred the Chogolisa Saddle between Golden Throne and Bride Peak.

The approach to Gasherbrum I was reconnoitred by Dyhrenfurth and Roch. They report great difficulty in finding a way through the very crevassed surface of the Gasherbrum glacier which descends from the great cirque of Gasherbrum summits, two of which are over 8,000 m. and possibly five others above 7,000 m.1 They reached a point at 6,250 m. ( = 20,520 feet) before turning back. There appeared to be no possible route by which Gasherbrum I could be climbed from this side, both the north-western ridge and the western face being terribly steep and quite impossible. On the last day of this reconnaissance the climbing took ten hours and the return was only begun in the late afternoon; the party was benighted and had to wait till the moon rose. Camp was only reached at 3.20 in the morning.

Dyhrenfurth suggests that the best route is by a huge rock and ice ridge which leads directly to the snowfields beneath the summit of Gasherbrum I. From the brief notes sent me it is not clear whether he means the south or south-west ridge. According to Desio's map both are very steep, difficult, and exposed. Ertl and Roch climbed it to about 6,300 m. ( = 20,685 feet), and were convinced that with the aid of ropes and pitons coolies could be taken up. The coolies, however, thought otherwise; and not being trained men in the same sense as those Sherpas and Bhutias who have tackled the other great Himalayan mountains, it is hardly surprising that they were unwilling to make the experiment. It was naturally most disappointing to the expedition to have to abandon what they considered the route offering the most promise of success.

Abruzzi's expedition of 1909, and extended by stereo-photogrammetry during the Duke of Spoleto's expedition of 1929. On the latter expedition the Duke himself, with Sig. Ponti and the guide Croux, camped at Conway's Saddle, overlooking the Kondus glacier to the south (Geographical Journal, vol. Ixxv, 1930, p. 391). The Duke's altimeter gave 20,000 feet as the height of the Saddle (ibid., p. 392). Desio's map shows only broken form lines in this area.

1 Burrard gives the following heights for the four triangulated summits of Gasherbrum, from east to west: I: 26,470 feet ( = 8,062 m.); II: 26,360 feet (=8,028 m.); Ill: 26,090 feet (= 7,946 m.); IV: 26,180 feet (== 7,974 m.). Desio's map gives for the same peaks, 8,068 m., 8,035 m-? 7,952 m., 7,925 m. In addition, Desio has two heights on the southernridge of Gasherbrum I over 7,000 m. (7,069 m. and 7,504 m.) which can hardly be regarded as separate peaks, one height at the eastern end of the summit ridge of Gasherbrum II, 7,772 m., which again is not a separate peak, and two outliers on the great southern spur of Gasherbrum IV, 7,321 m. and 7,003 m. which are definitely distinct peaks.

It was now decided to pitch a camp on the Conway Saddle, and to push up one camp after another along the great south-east ridge of Gasherbrum I. This meant a gradual approach, from a height of over 20,000 feet, of about eight miles of ridge with great differences of height, several lesser summits, and much very broken ice. There was really very little chance of success by this route from the start, though the actual difficulties for the coolies were less, provided the weather remained fine.

Unfortunately other difficulties now had to be met. Winzeler and Belaieff had caught some form of malaria infection in Skardu and were slow in recovering. Roch had therefore to remain in the base- camp while these members of the party were ill. Dyhrenfurth himself was also kept there for some time owing to the film work. On the 29th June Ertl and Hocht pitched the first camp on the Conway Saddle. Most of the coolies suffered from the altitude and had to be sent back almost at once. Ertl and Hocht had therefore to reconnoitre the route to Camp 7 (the first along the ridge leading northeastwards from the saddle). An ice-wall, about 600 feet high was made practicable for coolies by fixing ropes, and the route was now free from obstacles to Camp 7. Six coolies only could be induced to carry to this spot. When at last on the 6th July everything was ready for another move forward-after five weeks of fine weather-a violent snowstorm set in, which buried the tents under four feet of snow. This was the same break in the weather which brought disaster to the Nanga Parbat expedition. After five days of storm the Conway Saddle Camp had to be evacuated, and any attempt after this on a 26,000-feet peak became out of the question.

The film group worked for two days on the Conway Saddle. Acting and filming under such conditions cannot be much fun and the group shortly afterwards retired to the monasteries of Ladakh. On the 30th July Professor and Frau Dyhrenfurth, with Ertl and Hocht, returned to Camp 7 beyond the Conway Saddle, intending to make an attempt to climb Queen Mary Peak,[1] while Belaieff, Ghi- glione, Roch, and Winzeler tackled the Golden Throne. On the morning of the 2nd August, which was brilliantly fine, Ertl, Hocht, and a coolie named Hakim Beg, on one rope, and Dyhrenfurth, his wife, and the coolie Roji on another, cut steps and prepared a track towards the Queen Mary group. At about 7,100 m. or 23,310 feet by aneroid, the party returned to Camp 7. The next day was again fine, and, taking advantage of the route prepared the previous day, the two parties made rapid progress to about 23,000 feet, when clouds began to come up from the south-west. The going now became very arduous, the climbers sinking into the soft snow to their waists. The depression between the central and western summits was reached, and from here the western summit was climbed by 3 p.m., in a snowstorm. In his account Dyhrenfurth says: 'The barometer shows 7,580 m., 50 m. too high after my calculation later on. The real height of this summit of Queen Mary must be 7,530 m. or 24,705 feet. The descent to Camp 7 was made in a snowstorm. On the same day, the 3rd August, the other party reached the eastern summit of Golden Throne, to which Dyhrenfurth gives the height of 7,250 m.

It was now time for Dyhrenfurth to get down to Ladakh for further film work. Ertl and Hocht remained behind for a few days and on the 12th August climbed the central, east, and main summits of the Queen Mary group. Starting from Camp 7 at 2 a.m. they reached the dip below the central summit at 8 a.m. Here the coolie, Hakim Beg, who was feeling the effects of altitude, was left with food and warm clothing. From the central summit Ertl and Hocht climbed the east summit, and then, after crossing a broad snow plateau, reached the main summit at 4 p.m. On the last rocks, some 30 feet below the snow-capped summit, a cairn was erected with the records of the ascent. The party then returned to the central summit and reached Camp 7 at 8 p.m.

The above details have been summarized from a rough translation of Dyhrenfurth's notes by his wife. Without wishing to detract from the merit of the achievements of the expedition, it is necessary to add that there must be some uncertainty regarding the actual heights of the various summits of the Queen Mary group, until that group has been surveyed in detail. Only one summit has been triangulated, and it is reasonable to imagine that this is the highest of the group. The triangulation was carried out by Mr. Grant Peterkin, a very capable surveyor trained at the Royal Geographical Society, who accompanied the Workmans on their expedition to the Siachen in 1912. The results were checked in London. This triangulation was based on and extended from five triangulated peaks of the Survey of India net.1 The position and height of the Queen Mary summit are given as 350 39' 51", 76° 45' 43", 24,350 feet. We do not know definitely to which summit this refers, the scale of the Workman's map is too small to show the detailed topography of the various summits, and the summit region was not explored. On the other hand, in her account before the Royal Geographical Society, delivered on the 24th November 1913, Mrs. Bullock Workman stated definitely that the highest of the group has a height of 24,350 feet.1
1 See 'Note on the Construction of the Map of the Siachen Glacier', by C. Grant Peterkin, in Geographical Journal, vol. xliii, 1914, pp. 140-1.

This evidence is supported by other trigonometrical observations. Mr. V. D. B. Collins, of the Survey of India, was sent up in 1911 to triangulate the high peaks at the head of the Siachen basin. No summit of over 25,000 feet was found in this group. It seems unlikely that the earlier triangulators in the 'fifties of last century, as well as Collins in 1911, would have missed a summit of over 25,000 feet. It is possible that the photographs taken on the Duke of the Abruzzi's expedition might have missed such a summit; but hardly likely that those of the Duke of Spoleto's expedition should have done so. Members of that expedition camped three miles south-west and three miles north-north-east of Queen Mary, without suggesting that a summit over 25,000 feet existed.

It is, however, only fair to Professor Dyhrenfurth, with whom I have been in correspondence on the subject since the heights were first published in the press, to give his view of the question.

'According to your letter, Queen Mary Peak has been triangulated on the Bullock Workman expedition in 1912 from three points; all these points lay on the Siachen side. On the Duke of Spoleto's expedition the mountain was not re-triangulated. On all former maps, the topography of the Queen Mary massif is shown entirely wrong, as the highest summit is shown throughout as the eastern one, the outpost against the Siachen glacier, from which a ridge descends steeply westward. In reality this west ridge contains the central summit and the western summit, which is higher than the eastern. The central summit is lower than the eastern. According to the new Desio map, the western summit is only 6,700 m. high, that is, only 400 or 500 m. higher than the Conway Saddle. In fact the western summit is at least 7,430 m. high, or according to our observations, 7,530 m.

'The eastern summit is therefore the only point so far triangulated; the main summit lies rather far backward, beyond a broad plateaulike declivity. Up to now this main summit has not been triangulated, either by trigonometrical or photogrammetrical means. It is 250 m. higher than the eastern summit.

1 See 'The Exploration of the Siachen or Rose Glacier, Eastern Karakoram', by F. Bullock Workman, in Geographical Journal vol. xliii, 1914, p. 133.

'Considering the triangulation of Peterkin as correct, we obtain the following heights:1
Eastern summit . . 24,350 feet 7,424 m.

Central summit . c. 24,190 feet 7,375 m.

Western summit . . c. 24,370 feet 7,430 m.

Main summit . . £.25,174 feet 7,675 m.

'These are minimum heights, which according to our observations do not correspond to reality. As far as we could observe, the real heights are-

Eastern summit . . 24,682 feet 7,525 m.

Central summit . . 24,518 feet 7,475 m.

Western summit .. 24,705 feet 7,530 m.

Main summit . . 25,502 feet 7,775 m.

'These are already corrected aneroid readings. On the western summit the aneroid indicated 7,580 m. We subtracted 50 m. because the weather changed for the worse during the day and the atmospheric pressure had fallen by the equivalent of 50 m. I fully realize the doubtful value of aneroid readings. In the case of Queen Mary we did not base our statement upon a single observation, but on repeated examination by two aneroids and on three different days. Moreover we always compared the results with those of Camp 7 and of the Conway Saddle, where we had a large camp for 52 days, as you know. The height of this Saddle has been indicated by Desio as 6,300 m. Our Camp 6 was about 40 m. below the top of the pass; as a precaution I always assumed 6,250 m. as the height of Camp 6.5
Professor Dyhrenfurth goes on to say that he attaches still more importance to the fact that on the 3rd August they reached the height of Golden Throne on Queen Mary two hours before they reached the western summit of Queen Mary, that when they were at the summit they were far higher than Golden Throne, whose height is 7,312 m., and that photographs taken from the central, that is, the lowest of the four Queen Mary summits, show that even this is far higher than Golden Throne.

Such evidence will no doubt convince many that there is a 25,000- feet peak in the group. I have, however, myself been so deceived by the vagaries of an aneroid, finding it register incorrectly by a thousand feet at high altitudes without any apparent change of the barometer at a lower station, or any change of weather on the mountain; I have been so often deceived by estimates of whether I was higher or lower than the summit of a neighbouring mountain; and I have so often found that evidence based on such observations is insufficient for proof, that I cannot yet convince myself that any summit of the group exceeds 25,000 feet.

1 This is, of course, on the assumption that the triangulation data refers to the eastern summit.


Only very brief details are at present available of the interesting journey carried out during the summer of 1934 by Messrs. F. Ludlow and G. Sherriff in eastern Bhutan.[2] A start was made from Gauhati on the Brahmaputra in June, but the monsoon broke while they were in the Duars and they were held up for a week by floods, suffered severely from malaria, and almost had to turn back. With the aid of quinine, however, they pushed on and reached the healthier climate of the Tibetan country, shook off the fever, and were able to carry out a full programme.

The route was as follows: The party entered Bhutan at Diwanagiri (map 78N), travelled to Trashigong and Towang (78M), Tsona and the Mago district (82A), thence back by Tsona to the Nyamjang Ghu (78M), which was followed northwards to Dongkar, not far from the Trigu Tso (77P). The return journey was made by Trashi- yangsi to Trashigong (78M) .

As a result of this journey, a collection of about 1,000 bird-skins, dried specimens of some 600 different species of plants, with seeds and bulbs, and about 1,000 butterflies have been presented to the British Museum, which contributed towards the expenses.


Lieut. P. R. Oliver managed to get twenty days' leave early in the 1934 season for some climbing practice and training in Kashmir. With Lieut. A. S. Barton, r.e., who was a beginner, an attempt was made on Haramukh. All the peaks have, of course, been climbed previously, but that does not alter the fact that they offer some interesting climbing and afford some excellent views. The Survey of India trigonometrical station (16,001 feet) is situated on a sharp spur about miles north-west of the highest summit. The station was placed here by Montgomerie in the year 1856. Dr. Ernest Neve was the first to climb the highest summit, with Mr. Geoffroy Millais, in 1899.1 General Bruce later climbed it from the western end of the Gangabal lake.

Oliver and Barton left Srinagar on the 17th May and camped at the Trunkhal shepherd huts below the Gangabal lake on the 18 th, intending to make an attempt by General Bruce's route. Snow was, however, lying too low at 10,000 feet, owing to the late spring, and an attempt was considered unwise. About a fortnight later the p.n l y camped in the Erin nullah, south-west of the massif, with the object of climbing it by Neve's route.

On the 2nd June, starting from a camp under the south-west face, half a mile below the Sirbal lake, Oliver and Barton, with their two Afridi orderlies and some coolies, carried a light camp about 2,500 feet up the left branch of the prominent couloir above the lake. They started early in order to take advantage of the hard snow, and pitched the tents on a buttress between the two branches of the couloir, possibly at Neve's camp-site.

On the 3rd June the party of four roped and left camp at 3.30 a.m. Progress was slow owing to the inexperience of the party, the number on the rope, and two fairly difficult steps on the ridge. Once the neve was reached steady progress was made. A rest was taken at the junction of Bruce's and Neve's routes near the north Gangabal glacier, and one of the orderlies who was feeling the effects of altitude remained here. After passing a cairn on the west ridge, the middle dome was reached at 10.30 a.m.

The highest summit, the east dome, 16,890 feet, appeared to be 110 more than 45 minutes away, but there is a steep drop between the middle and east domes. The rocks are very loose and packed like a stack of tiles. These were covered by snow and it was considered unwise to proceed. The party therefore turned back. Progress was slow down the west ridge, and the bivouac camp was not reached till 4.30 p.m. The next morning the coolies came up from below, roped together with goat-hair ropes at about 2 yards interval. A grand glissade for some 2,000 feet down the hard morning snow took less than five minutes. The next day the camp at the Sirbal lake was struck; Srinagar was reached on the 6th.

Climbs on Haramukh are to be recommended, for the mountain is easy to reach and there is plenty of variety. Later in the year the west ridge is easier but less interesting. There are magnificent views of Nanga Parbat, and, on a clear day, of K2 and other Karakoram peaks.

1 See for the first ascent, Beyond the Pir Panjal, by Dr. E. F. Neve (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1912), chap, iv, p. 51. The date in Dr. Arthur Neve's Tourist Guide to Kashmir, p. 101, is given incorrectly as 1900. See also Himalayan Journal vol. ii, p. 67.


The following note is communicated by Lieut. E. H. Marriott, r.a. :

I went up the Kishanganga valley above Gurais on a visit of about ten days to the glaciers at its head. My base camp was about two miles above Abdullun (S. of I. map 43N/6), six marches from Bandipura. There is a good camping-ground with excellent spring water at about 1 0,000 feet, plenty of wood but little grazing, at the junction of two valleys. A rough path leads from here to a marg at the foot of the main east glacier (12,285 feet), which is unnamed on either the half-inch map 43N/sw, which I used, or on the one- inch map 43N/7. This glacier descends from the peak Kinari Dar- kush Chhish, and I named it the Kinari glacier. It has a steep ice- fall at the snout.

I took four coolies with a camp along the path to Kinari Darkush Dob, the pass leading to Badoab, and stayed two nights at about 12,800 feet. My camp was on a spur on the edge of the glacier, with water but no fuel. Three glaciers feed the stream, which is known as the Kinari Gah. They are all difficult to get on to, owing to terminal ice-falls, but the middle is easiest of access, for it can be reached by its western edge without the necessity of tackling the ice-fall. I found a possible route on to the eastern, or Kinari, glacier, but none on to the western, except by crossing from the middle one. The Kinari glacier has several peaks around the head of its basin, which appear to offer excellent climbing, and the basin is very level except at its western edge. The bordering peaks of the middle and western glaciers seemed to me to be composed of very rotten rock.1
I was in the region at the beginning of September when the snow was down to about 14,800 feet. I would not like to tackle any of the peaks early in the season on account of snow. The best time for climbing in this district is probably the month of August.

1 The three glaciers are shown very much generalized on map 43N/7, scale an inch to a mile. The height of Kinari Darkush Chhish is 17,090 feet, and there are at least two other peaks, on the enclosing wall, over 16,000 feet.-Ed.

[1] The name was given by Mrs. Bullock Workman in 1912. Personal names for Himalayan peaks being contrary to accepted principles, this name has not been adopted officially by the Survey or Government of India, and does not appear on official maps. It can be identified on the Survey map 52A by the height, 24,350.

[2] A brief account of the 1933 journey into Bhutan by Messrs. Ludlow and Sherriff appeared in Himalayan Journal, vol. vi, 1934, p. 144.

North-Eastern sikkim

North-Eastern sikkim

Pauhunri massif and Donkhya La from E. slopes of Lachi Hill. Tso Lhamo in left foreground, 31 st Oct. 1934

Pauhunri massif and Donkhya La from E. slopes of Lachi Hill. Tso Lhamo in left foreground, 31 st Oct. 1934

Chomo Lhari and the Phari Plain from Hill 21,000, NE. of Pauhunri. Glacier in foreground descends from E. side of Pauhunri. 30th Oct.1934

Chomo Lhari and the Phari Plain from Hill 21,000, NE. of Pauhunri. Glacier in foreground descends from E. side of Pauhunri. 30th Oct.1934

Telephotograph of Kangchenjunga from near Kerang, above Tso Lhamo

Telephotograph of Kangchenjunga from near Kerang, above Tso Lhamo

View NNE. of mountain wall at head of Sebo Chu from Tsetang in north¬east Sikkim. Sebo Chu springs  from moraine-covered snout of Khonpuk Glacier in foreground

View NNE. of mountain wall at head of Sebo Chu from Tsetang in north¬east Sikkim. Sebo Chu springs from moraine-covered snout of Khonpuk Glacier in foreground

Gasherbrum IV, 26,180 feet

Gasherbrum IV, 26,180 feet

Masherbrum, 25,660 feet

Masherbrum, 25,660 feet

Southern Gasherbrum Glacier with Gasherbrum II, III, and IV in background

Southern Gasherbrum Glacier with Gasherbrum II, III, and IV in background

Golden Throne, 24,000 feet, from the north

Golden Throne, 24,000 feet, from the north

NW. basin of Slacken Glacier from Camp 7, above Conway's Saddle

NW. basin of Slacken Glacier from Camp 7, above Conway's Saddle

Glacier Terrace at NW. source of Slacken, above the deeply entrenched Kondus Glacier

Glacier Terrace at NW. source of Slacken, above the deeply entrenched Kondus Glacier