Himalayan Journal vol.04
The Himalayan Journal
Vol.04

Publication year:
1932

Editor:
Kenneth Mason
Index
  1. ON ANCIENT TRACKS PAST THE PAMIRS
    (SIR AUREL STEIN)
  2. THE FIRST ASCENT OF KAMET
    (CAPTAIN E. ST. J. BIRNIE)
  3. AN EXPLORATION OF THE ARWA VALLEY, BRITISH
    (CAPTAIN E. ST. J. BIRNIE)
  4. MY EXPEDITION IN THE EASTERN KARAKORAM, 1930
    (Professor GIOTTO DAINELLI)
  5. SKI-ING IN THE HIGH EASTERN HIMALAYA
    (ULRICH WIELAND ?)
  6. BY SHONTHAR GALI TO RAMA, ASTOR
    (CAPTAIN J. BARRON)
  7. THE SHYOK ICE-BARRIER IN 1931
    (CAPTAIN C. E. C. GREGORY)
  8. A FRONTIER TOUR
    (LIEUT-COLONEL J. R. C. GANNON)
  9. HIGH ALTITUDE AND OXYGEN
    (N. E. ODELL)
  10. SUB-HIMALAYAN DIETETICS
    (Dr. C. STRICKLAND)
  11. THE TSARAP VALLEY, EASTERN LAHUL
    (LIBUT.-COLONISI, C. H. STOCKLEY)
  12. PEAKS AND PASSES OF THE T'lEN SHAN
    (Lieut-Colonel R. C. F. SCHOMBERG)
  13. THE FIGHT FOR KANGCHENJUNGA, 1931
    (PAUL BAUER)
  14. Lhonak, 1930
    (G. B. GOURLAY)
  15. A Journey in Upper Kumaun and Garhwal
    (Lieutenant HUGH ROSE)
  16. Expeditions
  17. In memorium
  18. Notes
  19. Reviews
  20. Correspondence
  21. Club Proceedings

Lhonak, 1930

G. B. GOURLAY

THAT mountaineers have at last come to recognize the Himalaya as an entrancing field, worthy of their greatest skill, is proved by the increasingly frequent expeditions which come to India. These expeditions, many of them comprising picked climbers, generously equipped and with ample time at their disposal, are apt to mislead us into regarding the Himalaya as a field only for the expert with a large organization behind him. This is not so; for there are countless peaks over twenty thousand feet offering excellent rock and snow climbing within the powers of the average climber, peaks that can be reached quickly and at no greater cost than that of a holiday of similar duration in the Alps.

The first essential for a short successful climbing holiday is good and reliable weather, an essential that at first sight appears unobtainable in Sikkim; for here the highest ranges approach within sixty miles of the Plains of India and receive the full blast of the monsoon. Yet behind this great barrier, and protected by it, are the high valleys of Lhonak(l). Here the monsoon, after its ceaseless struggle with the giant peaks, loses its ascendancy. While storms rage and clouds go about the icy walls of Kangchenjunga, Siniolchu and Lama Anden, the snow-capped mountains of Lhonak sparkle coldly in the clear air. Small clouds, indeed, break from the battle and rush madly towards the Lhonak summits, but they soon surrender and melt into the unfathomable blue of the Tibetan sky.

The glowing account of this country brought back by the International Himalayan Expedition had impressed me so much that, when Mr. W. Eversden and I were fortunate in obtaining a month's leave in October 1930, we wasted no time in deciding where to go. To climb Lhonak peak was our main objective ; but it was only one incident in a holiday as attractive and as full of interest as any lover of mountain scenery and high places could wish for.

The way to Lhonak as far as Lachen is well known; it is well described in Percy Brown's Tours in Sikkim. There are comfortable rest-houses at convenient stages and the path is suitable for riding-ponies and mule-transport. By motoring from the railway at Siliguri to Gangtok, Lachen (8800 feet) can be reached in five days from Calcutta. If time is very limited and the organization perfect, it is quite possible to reach there in three ; but I personally do not acclimatize sufficiently quickly to enjoy this rate of progress on the outward journey.

Lachen is a compact little village lying in the curve of the steep hillside, with the rocky cone and snowy ridge of Lama Anden toweling above it and the Lachen Chu, invisible but loudly audible, deep in the gorge below. The inhabitants are herdsmen of a Bhutanese-Tibetan stock, known as Lopas, who, during a great part of the year, are absent from their village and tending their yaks on the high pastures of Lhonak or the grazing-grounds by the upper Teesta. They are good- natured, reliable men who make excellent porters, but owing to their migratory habits it is advisable to let the headman know well in advance when porters are required. Potatoes, sheep and very good apples can also be purchased cheaply at Lachen, but for- these also the headman should be given several days' notice. If asked to do so, the General Secretary to the Sikkim Durbar at Gangtok will issue the necessary instructions to the headman.

The obvious way into Lhonak is to leave the bridle-path after crossing the suspension bridge which spans the Zemu near its junction with the Lachen Chu, some two miles beyond the village, and to follow the Zemu as far as the stream that comes down from Lhonak. This stream is called the Zemu Chu and Lambo (Langpo) Chu on the Survey of India map, but Freshfield more aptly names it the Lhonak Chu and retains the Zemu for the stream issuing from the Zemu glacier; and I have followed his nomenclature. But short as this way is, and simple as it may appear from the map, it is not easy. The barrier which withstands the monsoon does not yield willingly to man's approach. The path consists of a series of mud-filled holes and leads through water-logged rhododendron thickets and over- fallen tree-trunks, rotting in the morass ; it is so difficult for laden men that it is advisable to halt soon after crossing the Lhonak Chu and to pitch camp in a clearing near a herdman's hut where there is a small potato patch (11,000 feet). This stage is only six miles.

The next march, at first through water-logged forest, soon develops into a steep scramble up through breast-high vegetation by the side of the Lhonak Chu. The panting traveller then arrives on open slopes characteristic of the Lhonak country. He has only progressed another six miles in as many hours when he will probably decide to halt (13,500 feet). Ahead the valley opens out and he can take almost any line he pleases, the rate of progress depending entirely on his degree of acclimatization.

Some time ago the Sikkim State laboriously constructed a path to Lhonak by this way, but by 1911 an essential bridge across the Lhonak Chu had been washed away and beyond the Zemu Chu no vestige of the path now remains. The rainfall is so heavy in these valleys that the cost of maintaining a track of any sort on the steep loose hillsides is prohibitive and it will be many years before the traveller is able to enter Lhonak with any facility by this direct valley-route.

There is, however, another way, by Thangu and the Lungnak La, which, though somewhat longer and rising to over 17,000 feet, is much more attractive than the direct route. After crossing the Zemu Chu at Zemu Ram, the bridle-path rises steadily beside the racing waters of the Lachen Chu, and, after ten beautiful miles, reaches Thangu (12,800 feet). Here the Jha Chu, rushing down from tho southern glaciers of Kangchenjhau, meets the Lachen river, and at the junction the valley widens. There is a small area of flat ground where villagers from as far away as Lachen have planted small plots of potatoes; on a shoulder of the hill above the fields is situated tho rest-house ; still higher is the gompa ; but there is no village at all.

A mile beyond Thangu a fine glen leads westward into the snow- clad range, which, from the Zemu to Chomiomo on the Tibetan border, cuts off Lhonak from the Lachen valley. Up this glen, as far as Pogi, a halting-place on the way to summer pastures, is a rough path which becomes less and less conspicuous amongst the steepening rocks leading to the Lungnak La (17,300 feet). We crossed this pass on our homeward journey during a snow-storm and saw practically nothing, but there is no doubt in my mind that the scenery must be very grand. At first the descent on the west side of the pass is steep and it is hard to believe that yak and sheep habitually pass this way ; then the valley slopes more gradually to the little Chabru Tso. The valley in the neighbourhood of this bleak tarn reminded me of a Highland glen ; the red autumnal sheen of the dwarf rhododendron tinting the rocky hillsides with the rich tones of the heather and the blaeberry. At the foot of the valley, some seven hundred feet lower and two miles further, lies the camping-ground of Makotang, on the Naku Chu and on the edge of Lhonak proper.

(*) Survey of India map 78A and 77D. See also sketch map at end of Journal, vol. ii.

By crossing the Lungnak La in one march, Lhonak can be reached as quickly as by the Zemu gorge, but to climb from 12,800 feet to 17,300 feet and down again to 14,000 in one day is a formidable task on the outward journey ; it is much simpler on the return, for the traveller is presumably fitter and the ascent is twelve hundred feet less.

A short way below Makotang the Naku Chu joins the Lhonak Chu and here the routes by the Zemu and the Lungnak La re-unite. All Lhonak lies ahead. It is a country of long bare valleys rising gradually to the glaciers of the encircling snows. Though long and bare, these valleys are not devoid of interest, for here a small meadow speckled blue with gentians outrivals the sky; there framed in the angle of a tributary glen a vista of icy peaks, as yet untrod, forms a perfect picture.

As high as sixteen thousand feet there is sufficient juniper and dwarf rhododendron fuel and abundant water ; the choice of a camping- site is particularly easy, the deciding factor being generally the wind, for unfortunately Lhonak does not escape the bitter blast that blows daily on the edge of the Tibetan plateau.

The journey up the valley from Makotang to Goma, which lies at the foot of the terminal moraine of the intricate glacier system formed by the meeting of the glaciers from the Jonsong, Lhonak and Dodang peaks, takes two days, but on the return journey this distance can be easily covered in one. Goma is at about 16,500 feet, and here we pitched our base-cainp, obtaining what shelter we could from the wind by placing our Meade tent on the lee of a large rock on which was boldly emblazoned in red letters a large "E. S." After puzzling our brains for some time we concluded from the number of empty chocolate packets and fancy biscuit cartons in the neighbourhood that these were the initials of the young climber who with his companion camped here before brilliantly making the first ascent of the Dodang peak.

At the head of the Lhonak valley and immediately north of the Jonsong peak is an imposing snowy pyramid 21,460 feet high. This is Lhonak peak. Although the massive Jonsong peak to the south and the Dodang Nyima peak on the north (22,700 feet) had been conquered by the International Expedition, the summit of Lhonak peak was still untrodden. As we gazed at it from our camp on the morning after our arrival the wind was blowing the snow ofl the crest in great clouds, while from Jonsong peak a transparent fan-like film of mist was whirling thousands of feet into the air.

Northward the wind appeared less strong, so we decided to ascend the Choten Nyima La and attempt to climb the Choten Nyima peak by the plateau on its eastern flank. We camped for a night below the pass and then climbing the col turned west and pitched camp on snow at 19,000 feet. It was soon evident, however, the eastern shoulder was not directly connected with the summit, and that a steep and narrow icy ridge was too difficult for us to negotiate, at any rate in our semi-acclimatized condition. Although we had failed to reach the top we returned to our base-camp much fitter to tackle Lhonak peak; we had also obtained an excellent view over the Kampa Dzong plain, while the ascent of the pass itself was most interesting. The crest of the Choten Nyima La is a narrow ridge of crumbling rock, reached from the south by several hundred feet of steep scree. On the Tibetan side there is a short steep slope to the glacier snow. Abruptly to the east rise the steep walls of the cone shaped Sentinel Peak climbed by Dr. Kellas in 1910; high precipices protect the western flank.

On our return to Goma we made plans to attack Lhonak peak. We calculated that it would take us four days to reach the summit and return to the col at the foot of the south face. We decided take food for five days, two Meade tents, and five porters, all of whom would go to our highest camp. Two additional porters were to make a double trip to our second camp with food and fuel for the return journey, and we carried a primus stove for use above our second camp; it functioned perfectly with petrol as fuel at 20,000 Ml.

These arrangements made, we set off from our base-camp at 8-45 A.M. on the 9th October. Though short, it was a strenuous march over moraines consisting indiscriminately of boulders, gravel and sand. At 1-45 we pitched Camp I on a little mossy bank just large enough for our two tents. That night there was not a cloud in the sky and scarcely a breath of wind, though thick banks of cloud were sliding up the cleft of the Lachen valley. Our beds on the moss were soft and warm, but we both suffered from the height and I myself spent an unenviable night with my thoughts revolving in reasonless circles, almost driving me demented. Morning came at last and at 8-45 on the 10th October we started up the left bank of the Lhonak glacier. Before long we passed a small lake about two or three hundred yards wide, surrounded by tottering ice pinnacles and formed by the stream from the Jonsong glacier being dammed by the ice of the Lhonak glacier.

The going was again rough but the gorgeous scenery compensated us. The striking beauty of the Fluted Peak often called forth our admiration and it is indeed surprising that it has not been more prominently mentioned by Kellas or Freshfield. We pitched Camp II at 11-30 directly under Lhonak peak in a sheltered hollow on a stone- covered glacier, near some empty tins and an oxygen cylinder, relics of the International Expedition. On this day we ate a much larger tiffin, a sure sign that we were getting over the glacier lassitude from which we had suffered for the last few days. Our porters paved a space for our tents with large flat stones, but we were thankful for our cork mattresses.

Above Camp II a snow slope leads to the col between Lhonak peak and a lower one to the south which Kellas climbed. To reach this slope we had to climb two rocky pitches, so spent two hours of the afternoon with the porter Kippa preparing a way over the ice and fixing ropes on the rocks to help the laden porters in the morning. The night was warmer and slightly clouded when we put out our lights at six o'clock and when we awoke the sky was overcast.

We left Camp II at a quarter-past eight (11th October), and with the help of the fixed ropes quickly reached the top of the rock pitches. Then we roped and cut a few steps to help the laden porters, but the crevasses were either filled with snow or so strongly bridged that, with Lewa leading most of the way, we arrived on the col at a quarter to twelve.

We had hoped that there would be an extensive view westward from here but were disappointed. A high fiat-topped mountain immediately west of Lhonak peak intervened. Clouds were now blowing up from the east and threatening snow; in the gathering mist it was difficult to discover a suitable camping-site higher on the mountain and we rather weakly allowed Lewa to persuade us to pitch Camp III on the broad back of the col. There was nothing to do in the afternoon as it was windy and cloudy ; we lay in our tent none too warm, unhappily wondering whether we ought to have gone higher.

On the morning of the 12th October the outlook was unpromising. Clouds were creeping towards us from the valleys on the east and when we left at 7-15 a cloud-cap was already forming on the Jonsong peak. We took the porters Kippa and Nirna with us and aimed to reach the summit and return to Camp III that evening. Within a few minutes of starting, however, we had to cut steps and it took us two-and-a-half hours to reach a small level shelf where we obviously ought to have spent the previous night.

Still cutting steps, now in freezing cloud, now in sunshine, we reached a second level shelf at half-past one. There was now little hope of reaching the summit at this pace, so we turned back and, as soon as possible, signalled to Lewa to move up. At 4-45 we had pitched Camp IV on a little level patch from which we intended to make a second attempt on the morrow. Kippa and Nima did excellent work on this day, cutting steps most of the time ; the former finished up by returning to Camp III and bringing up a double load to the new camp.

We only had food and fuel enough for one more day on the mountain. We therefore intended to make an early start on the 13th, but on account of the intense cold and consequent difficulties of heating breakfast and thawing boots it was 7-35 before we were ready to start. The weather was far from encouraging ; a thick blanket of cloud filled the Lhonak valley and dirty brown clouds were pouring over the Nepal peaks from the south-west. Lewa took Kippa's place and we set off steadily up the "soup-plates " hacked out by us the day before. We knew before we reached our previous turning-point that there would be no view, but plenty of wind-driven snow on the top, if we reached it.

We were soon into the clouds, but I do not think they were very dense, for a glimmer of warmth penetrated from above. Lewa led in a determined manner and cut steadily up the steep slope. When it eased off a little we were confronted by a huge crevasse which forced us to the right along its lower lip. Here Nima took the lead. Before long this crevasse narrowed and after crossing it we were confronted by another, far more formidable to look at, but easily avoided by traversing still further to the right. Finally we reached a fortyfive-degree slope leading to the summit ridge along which we ploughed our way for fifteen minutes through soft deep snow to the top. We reached the summit at half-past twelve.

Except for an instant when the clouds parted and gave us a glimpse towards the flat-topped peak to the west, we had no view and we did not remain long owing to the cold. The steps cut for the ascent may have been larger than necessary, but we reaped the advantage now and were able to race down very fast. By two o'clock we were within hailing distance of our camp and shouted to our porters to strike it. After a cup of tea we pushed on to Camp II and reached it at 4-55 p.m., tired but thoroughly content. It was just unfortunate that our ascent coincided with the only two cloudy days which occurred during the sixteen days we spent in Lhonak ; but we were in a forgiving mood.

We were perturbed to find in the morning that Lew a was snow- blind in both eyes and Nima in one. Nima started off early by himself without a pack and when he arrived at the base-camp in the evening, he had already much recovered. Lewa, unfortunately, who was suffering intense pain, was unable to get very far by himself, although he bravely attempted to negotiate the rough moraine with the help of a stick; then the ever-cheerful Thesang came to his aid and carried him, no light weight, pickback all the way to camp. It was all I could do to keep up with this excellent Lachen porter who, not content with carrying one man heavier than himself, insisted on carrying me also dry shod over several glacier torrents.

We had two days to spare before setting off home. We wished to go southward and see the view from the high snowlields between the Lhonak and Zemu valleys, but Eversden's feet had been slightly frost-bitten during the climb and he wisely decided to move slowly down the valley with the main camp. Skirting the hillsides south of the Lhonak valley and passing several small lakes, I reached and camped in the Langpo valley. Next morning I set out southwards for the 19,000-foot snowfield which I hoped would overlook the Zemu valley. But as the sun rose, little wisps of cloud formed in that direction and though I raced upwards as fast as my lungs would allow, I arrived too late : a seething mass of cloud filled the valley ahead. For one instant the clouds parted and the fluted summit of Siniolchu loomed up. Westward and northward the air was clear. Along the horizon ranged the line of mighty peaks : Kangchenjunga, Kang- bachen, the Langpo, Jonsong, Lhonak and Dodang Nyima peaks and those of the Dodang Nyima range as far as Chomiomo vied with one another in shape and beauty.

I had no time to wait for clearer weather and hurried on to rejoin the main party in camp just below the Chabru Tso on the way to the Lungnak La. Snow fell lazily during the night and next morning; it was laborious work stamping a path through the fresh snow, which near the top of the pass was three or four feet deep. Falling snow filled the air and we could not see more than a few yards. The roar of an occasional avalanche reached us. East of the pass there was less snow, and by the time we reached Pogi there was none. There was now a visible track and everyone hurried on at his own pace to Thangu rest-house, in the comfort and warmth of which we remained a day, before returning to Gangtok by normal stages, enjoying vastly the sense of perfect fitness and an enormous appetite.

We had done what we had set out to do and had had a wonderful holiday. With more experience we could have accomplished more, and I am therefore including some brief notes which may be useful to anyone contemplating a similar journey to Upper Sikkim.

Appendix 1.-Transport and Porterage.

Calcutta to Siliguri.-One night by train.

Siliguri to Oangtok.-Every year the cart road is being improved, and by the middle of September it is generally possible to go straight through to Gangtok by car in six to seven hours. The hire for the single journey is Rs. 45 to 60 according to the size of the car (Agency:-Pemba Hishey, Motor Agents, Kalimpong).

Gangtok-Lachen-Thangu.-The road is suitable for mule-transport, and this form of transport is the surest. Daily stage coolies are obtainable and are cheaper than mules, but if more than 6 or 8 are required per stage, there is apt to be delay in obtaining them. In either case application should be made to the General Seoretary to the Sikkim Durbar, who should be given plenty of notice. Notification No. 4960,/G published by the Sikkim Durbar giving full particulars of rates should be obtained from him.

To Lhonak.-Yak transport is obtainable at the villages between Lachen and Thangu and can be taken in and out of Lhonak by the Lungnak La up till the middle of September but later in the year this pass is closed. No animal transport is possible by the Zemu route.

Permanent Porters.-To avoid risks of delay it is advisable to engage a nucleus of porters for the whole time. These men are paid Re. l/-aday. Some are obtainable in Gangtok but if any climbing is to be attempted trained Darjeeling men should be employed. The Local Secretary of the Himalayan Club is always in touch with these men and will make the necessary arrangements.

For general work in Upper Sikkim the Lachen yak-herdsmen are hard to beat; they are used to sleeping out up to heights of over 18,000 feet and carry heavier loads than the men from Darjeeling. In addition to this they will provide their own rations, thereby minimising porterage from Gangtok. Notice of requirements of Lachen men should be given to the Sikkim Durbar very early as the men have to come in from their herd camps in the hills.

Appendix 2.-Porters' Rations.

All porters who are taken for more than one day's march away from the ordinary stage routes must be provided with food in addition to their pay, except in the case of local men who will provide their own food for a daily allowance of six annas.

This food can be purchased in Gangtok from Jetmull Bhojraj, an efficient and obliging firm ; there is a branch of the firm at Mangen which can generally supply the necessary items, but at considerably greater expense.

A suitable and sufficient scale of daily rations per man with the approximate cost in Gangtok is :-
1 ¼ lb. Rice @Rs. 8-4-0 per maund.
8 oz. Atta ,, 0-4-6 Per seer.
4,, Red Dhal ,, 0-4-6 ,,
2,, Ghee ,, 2-0-0 ,,
½ ,, Tea Dust (superior) ,, 2-4-0 ,,
½ ,, Spices ,, 1-4-0 ,,
½ ,, Salt ,, 0-2-0 ,,
½ ,, Sugar ,, 0-5-6 ,,
2 lb. 4 oz. costiug approximately seven and a half annas.

These rations should be packed in double gunny bags, each bag to contain so many days' food for a given number of men. If this is not done it is difficult to keep a check on the rate of consumption, which is very necessary. A third of of a lb. of Champa, at 6 As. a seer, should be supplied when cooking is impossible.

Appendix 3.-European Rations.

Fresh Food.-Chickens, potatoes, vegetables, milk and eggs are obtainable in the villages between Gangtok and Lachen. In addition fresh meat can be obtained at Gangtok and probably also at Mangen. At Lachen potatoes (2 annas per seer), apples (6 annas per seer) and sheep (Rs. 7 eacn) are available, and it is advisable to give previous notice of requirements through the General Secretary at Gangtok.

One sheep will provide all the meat requirements for two people for ten or twelve days and above 13,000 feet it will remain good for longer than this. Lhonak after August is deserted and no provisions are then available, but when the herds are there yak milk and mutton can be obtained.

Stores.-The quantity and detail of stores vary largely according to personal taste. One of the greatest difficulties is to decide on the quantity of essentials such as sugar, butter, tea, etc., to be taken. If left in the hands of the cook or sirdar, there is no doubt that however much there is, it will prove insufficient, but if these stores are provided on the following scale and issued daily, there should be ample :-
Tea ½ oz. Per head Per day.
Sugar 3 ,, ,, ,,
Butter 1 ½,, ,, ,,
Bread 12,, ,, ,,
Bacon 3 ,, ,, ,,
In deciding the quantities of tinned provisions it is to be borne in mind that for the journey to and from Lachen ample fresh food is available. The following list of stores will serve as a guide to those planning a similar trip. The quantities stated were sufficient for two persons for 30 days, of which 14 days were spent on the bungalow route, where fresh food was available. The other 16 days were spent in Lhonak and no fresh food was used except 2 sheep and an ample supply of potatoes and apples.
Bacon 6 lb.
Bread 30
Biscuits 6 ¾
Butter 5
Cake 1 ½
Candles 3
Cheese ..
Chocolate 5 ½
Cocoa ½
Coffee ¼
Cream ¼
Custard Powder 5/8
Cigarettes Nos. 5,000
Flour 6
Fish Sardines 1 ½
,, misc 7
Fruit 16 ¾
,, evaporated 1
Horlicks ..
Jam 9
Lime Juice 6 ½
Matches (Boxes) 12
Meat 16 ¼
Milk 12 ¼
Pepper 5/8
Pudding 1
Raisins 2
Rum 1 ¾
Salt 2
Sausages 3 ¾
Sause 1 ½
Soap 1 ½
Soup Maji 4 5/8
Sugar 12
Sago 1 ½
Tea 3
Toilet Paper ..
Vegetables 8 ¼
Total about 170 lb.
Bread._ Firpo's sandwich loaf or their round corrugated faacy loaf both keep exceptionally well if wrapped in cloth but not sealed up. After three weeks in the dry air of Lhonak bread becomes very hard but a good cook can remedy this.

Packing. - Ordinary packing cases of about the correct size are obtainable but if it is important to keep the weight down special light boxes weighing about 10 to12 lb. can be made up at the cost of a few rupees.

If these boxes have a content of 2 ½ cub. ft. they will weigh about 80 lb. gross when filled.

All boxes should be locked and if different keys are used, they and the boxes to which they belong should be clearly numbered to match. By far the best lock obtainable in India is the Sparling lock made at Aligarh.

If more than one box of stores is necessary the contents of each should be very carefully considered and each box should contain all requirements for a specified number of days, so that as few boxes as possible have to be opened at each and a great deal of unnecessary packing and re-packing avoided. The contents of each box should be carefully listed and a record kept of all withdrawals. These instructions may seem to be unnecessarily elaborate, but when it comes to issuing stores in a freezing blast of wind and at a high altitude when the brain is sluggish and the temper frayed, the preliminary trouble and care given to this matter will be very much appreciated.

Merchants are generally agreeable to give credit for unused tinned goods as long as the labels are unbroken. It is therefore a good plan to pack separately items that may be in excess. The tins should be wrapped separately in several sheets of newspaper and very tightly jammed together in the box to minimize the chance of their becoming damaged.

Appendix 4. -Summary of Expenses (for 2 persons).

Rs. As. P.
I. Return Rail (2nd class) and car fares Calcutta to Gangtok, including incidental expenses 149 0 0
II. Bungalow Passes, Light and Fuel 65 11 0
III. Food Stores brought from Calcutta 149 9 0
IV. Food purchased en route 40 10 0
V. Porters' Food 114 10 0
VI. Porters' and Coolies' Wages 669 14 0
VII. Hire of equipment from Himalayan Club including2 tents, canvas sheet, windproof suits, mattresses, rope, ice-axes, crampons, porters' rucksacks, primus stove, store boxes, tiffin-basket, cutlery, etc. 200 6 0
VIII. Miscellaneous equipment 81 11 0
IX. Porters' equipment consisting of blankets, jerseys, goggles, gloves and boots for six men 89 3 0
X. Medical Stores 11 13 0
Rs. 1542 7 0
A large person Rs. 771 4 0 A large proportion of the cost of item VII and the whole of item IX were only necessary for an ascent of over 20,000 feet. The cost of a trip not including any high climbing would therefore be appreciably reduced.

No photographic expenses are included.

Lhonak Peak (CIRC. 21,260 ft.) from the South-East. Phot.o. G. B. Gourlay.

Lhonak Peak (CIRC. 21,260 ft.) from the South-East. Phot.o. G. B. Gourlay.



Fluted Peak (20,540 ft.) and Langpo Peak (22,805 ft.) from the NorthPhoto. G.B. Gourlay

Fluted Peak (20,540 ft.) and Langpo Peak (22,805 ft.) from the NorthPhoto. G.B. Gourlay